REVIEW PAPER
Menthol cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence
 
More details
Hide details
1
Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD, USA
2
Freelance medical writer, Fort Myers, FL, USA
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Allison C. Hoffman   

Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Publish date: 2011-05-23
 
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2011;9(Suppl 1):S5
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Since tobacco use is driven by dependence on nicotine, the primary addictive substance in tobacco, much research has focused on nicotine dependence. Less well understood, however, is the role that menthol plays in nicotine dependence. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, menthol plays in nicotine addiction in adults and youth. Based on research examining several indicators of heaviness of nicotine addiction, including time to first cigarette upon waking, night waking to smoke, as well as some other indications of dependence, it is suggested that menthol cigarette smokers are more heavily dependent on nicotine. Although other indicators of nicotine dependence, including number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence, failed to consistently differentiate menthol and non-menthol smokers, these indicators are thought to be less robust than time to first cigarette. Therefore, though limited, the existing literature suggests that menthol smokers may be more dependence on nicotine.
 
REFERENCES (35)
1.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2008, 57 (45): 1226-8. accessed 2009 Apr 8.
 
2.
Simon JA, Browner WS, Mangano DT: Predictors of smoking relapse after noncardiac surgery. Study of Perioperative Ischemia (SPI) Research Group. American Journal of Public Health. 1992, 82 (9): 1235-7. 10.2105/AJPH.82.9.1235.
 
3.
Simon JA, Solkowitz SN, Carmody TP, Browner WS: Smoking cessation after surgery. A randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1997, 157 (12): 1371-6. 10.1001/archinte.157.12.1371.
 
4.
Giovino GA, Sidney S, Gfroerer JC, O'Malley PM, Allen JA, Richter PA, Cummings KM: Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2004, 6 (Suppl 1): S67-81. 10.1080/14622203710001649696.
 
5.
Harris B: Menthol: A review of its thermoreceptor interactions and their therapeutic applications. International Journal of Aromatherapy. 2006, 16 (3/4): 117-131. 10.1016/j.ijat.2006.09.010.
 
6.
Heck JD: A review and assessment of menthol employed as a cigarette flavoring ingredient. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010, 48 (suppl): S1-S38. 10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.002.
 
7.
Baker TB, Piper ME, McCarthy DE, et al: Time to first cigarette in the morning as an index of ability to quit smoking: implications for nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010, 4 Suppl 4: S555-S570.
 
8.
Ahijevych K, Parsley LA: Smoke constituent exposure and stage of change in Black and White women cigarette smokers. Addict Behav. 1999, 24: 115-120. 10.1016/S0306-4603(98)00031-8.
 
9.
Ahijevych K, Garrett BE: Menthol pharmacology and its potential impact on cigarette smoking behavior. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2004, 6 (suppl 1): S17-S28. 10.1080/14622200310001649469.
 
10.
Perez-Stable EJ, Herrera B, Jacob P, et al: Nicotine metabolism and intake in Black and White smokers. JAMA. 1998, 280: 152-156. 10.1001/jama.280.2.152.
 
11.
Hyland A, Garten S, Cummings KM: Mentholated cigarettes and smoking cessation: findings from COMMIT (Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation). Tobacco Control. 2002, 11 (2): 135-139. 10.1136/tc.11.2.135.
 
12.
Okuyemi KS, Pulvers KM, Cox LG: Nicotine dependence among African American light smokers: A comparison of three scales. Addictive Behaviors. 32: 1989-2002. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.01.002.
 
13.
Gandhi KK, Foulds J, Steinberg MB, et al: Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2009, 63: 360-367. 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01969.x.
 
14.
Bover MT, Foulds J, Steinberg MB, et al: Waking at night to smoke as a marker for tobacco dependence: patient characteristics and relationship to treatment outcome. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2008, 62: 182-190. 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01653.x.
 
15.
Muscat JE, Richie JP, et al: Mentholated cigarettes and smoking habits in Whites and Blacks. Tobacco Control. 2002, 11 (4): 368-371. 10.1136/tc.11.4.368.
 
16.
Wang J, Roethig HJ, Appleton S, et al: The effect of menthol containing cigarettes on adult smokers’ exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010, 57: 24-30. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.12.003.
 
17.
Collins CC, Moolchan ET: Shorter time to first cigarette of the day in menthol adolescent cigarette smokers. Addictive Behaviors. 2006, 31: 1460-1464. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.10.001.
 
18.
Mustonen TK, Spencer SM, Hoskinson RA, et al: The influence of gender, race, and menthol content on tobacco exposure measures. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2005, 7: 581-590. 10.1080/14622200500185199.
 
19.
Ahijevych KL, Tyndale RF, Dhatt RK, et al: Factors influencing cotinine half-life during smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2002, 4: 423-431. 10.1080/1462220021000018452.
 
20.
Ahijevech K, Wewers ME: Factors associated with nicotine dependence among African American women cigarette smokers. Research in Nursing and Health. 1993, 16: 283-292. 10.1002/nur.4770160407.
 
21.
Clark PI, Gautam S, Gerson LW: Effect of menthol cigarettes on biochemical markers of smoke exposure among Black and White smokers. Chest. 1996, 110: 1194-1198. 10.1378/chest.110.5.1194.
 
22.
Clemmey P, Brooner R, Chutauape MA, et al: Smoking habits and attitudes in a methadone maintenance treatment population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1997, 44: 123-132. 10.1016/S0376-8716(96)01331-2.
 
23.
Crews KM: Blacks as high-risk smokers. Health Values. 1994, 18: 41-43.
 
24.
Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Ahijevych K, et al: Does menthol enhance addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2003, 5: 9-11. 10.1080/1462220031000070543.
 
25.
Wagenknecht LE, Cutter GR, Haley NJ, et al: Racial differences in serum cotinine levels among smokers in the coronary artery risk development in (young) adults study. American Journal of Public Health. 1990, 80: 1053-1056. 10.2105/AJPH.80.9.1053.
 
26.
Okuyemi KS, Ebersole-Robinson M, et al: African-American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences. Journal of the National Medical Association. 2004, 96 (9): 1208-1211.
 
27.
Baker RR, Pereira da Silva JA, Smith G: The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I: flavourings and additives. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2004, 42 (suppl): S3-S37. 10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00189-3.
 
28.
Moolchan ET, Franken FH, Jaszyna-Gasior M: Adolescent nicotine metabolism: ethnoracial differences among dependent smokers. Ethnicity and Disease. 2006, 16: 239-243.
 
29.
Muscat JE, Chen G, Knipe A, et al: Effects of menthol on tobacco smoke exposure, nicotine dependence, and NNAL glucuronidation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009, 18: 35-41. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0744.
 
30.
Moolchan ET, Hudson DL, Schroeder JR, et al: Heart rate and blood pressure responses to tobacco smoking among African-American adolescents. Journal of the National Medical Association. 2004, 96: 767-771.
 
31.
Trinidad DR, Gilpin EA, Lee L, et al: Do the majority of Asian-American and African-American smokers start as adults?. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2004, 26 (2): 156-158. 10.1016/j.amepre.2003.10.008.
 
32.
Hersey JC, Ng SW, Nonnemaker JM, et al: Are menthol cigarettes a starter product for youth?. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2006, 8: 403-413. 10.1080/14622200600670389.
 
33.
Wackowski O, Delnevo CD: Menthol cigarettes and indicators of tobacco dependence among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors. 2007, 32: 1964-1969. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.12.023.
 
34.
DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, et al: Recollections and repercussions of the first inhaled cigarette. Addict Behav. 2004, 29: 261-272. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2003.08.002.
 
35.
Benowitz NL: Clinical pharmacology of nicotine: implications for understanding, preventing, and treating tobacco addiction. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2008, 83: 531-541. 10.1038/clpt.2008.3.
 
 
CITATIONS (20):
1.
Wirkungen von Menthol als Zusatzstoff in Tabakprodukten und die Notwendigkeit einer Regulierung
S. Kahnert, U. Nair, U. Mons, M. Pötschke-Langer
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz
 
2.
Effects of menthol and its interaction with nicotine-conditioned cue on nicotine-seeking behavior in rats
Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Ramachandram Avusula, Meiyu Zhang, Yongzhen Gong, Xiu Liu
Psychopharmacology
 
3.
Amplified reacquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats by repeated stress during abstinence
Guoliang Yu, Hao Chen, Burt M. Sharp
Psychopharmacology
 
4.
An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products: Table 1.
Suzanne van de Nobelen, Anne S. Kienhuis, Reinskje Talhout
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
5.
Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers
Pebbles Fagan, Pallav Pohkrel, Thaddeus Herzog, Ian Pagano, Donna Vallone, Dennis R. Trinidad, Kari-Lyn Sakuma, Kymberle Sterling, Craig S. Fryer, Eric Moolchan
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
 
6.
The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
Cancer Causes & Control
 
7.
Variation in Free Radical Yields from U.S. Marketed Cigarettes
Reema Goel, Zachary Bitzer, Samantha M. Reilly, Neil Trushin, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, Jason Liao, Ryan J. Elias, John P. Richie
Chemical Research in Toxicology
 
8.
Enhancing effect of menthol on nicotine self-administration in rats
Lisa Biswas, Erin Harrison, Yongzhen Gong, Ramachandram Avusula, Jonathan Lee, Meiyu Zhang, Thomas Rousselle, Janice Lage, Xiu Liu
Psychopharmacology
 
9.
Use of flavoured cigarettes in Poland: data from the global adult tobacco survey (2009–2010)
Dorota Kaleta, Bukola Usidame, Anna Szosland-Fałtyn, Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska
BMC Public Health
 
10.
Particulate matter emissions of different brands of mentholated cigarettes
Julia Gerharz, Michael H.K Bendels, Markus Braun, Doris Klingelhöfer, David A Groneberg, Ruth Mueller
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
 
11.
Believability of Cigarette Warnings About Addiction: National Experiments of Adolescents and Adults
Allison J Lazard, Sarah D Kowitt, Li-Ling Huang, Seth M Noar, Kristen L Jarman, Adam O Goldstein
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
12.
Menthol Binding and Inhibition of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
Abrar Ashoor, Jacob C. Nordman, Daniel Veltri, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Lina Al Kury, Yaroslav Shuba, Mohamed Mahgoub, Frank C. Howarth, Bassem Sadek, Amarda Shehu, Nadine Kabbani, Murat Oz, Bernard Le Foll
PLoS ONE
 
13.
Menthol facilitates the intravenous self-administration of nicotine in rats
Tengfei Wang, Bin Wang, Hao Chen
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
 
14.
Smoking Trends and Disparities Among Black and Non-Hispanic Whites in California
Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa Sakuma, Jamie Felicitas, Pebbles Fagan, Charles L. Gruder, Lyzette Blanco, Christopher Cappelli, Dennis R. Trinidad
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
15.
Brand variation in oxidant production in mainstream cigarette smoke: Carbonyls and free radicals
Samantha M. Reilly, Reema Goel, Neil Trushin, Ryan J. Elias, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, Jason Liao, John P. Richie
Food and Chemical Toxicology
 
16.
Relapse among Cigarette Smokers: The CARDIA longitudinal study - 1985–2011
Ralph S. Caraballo, Judy Kruger, Kat Asman, Linda Pederson, Rachel Widome, Catarina I. Kiefe, Brian Hitsman, David R. Jacobs
Addictive Behaviors
 
17.
A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?
Judith Rosenbloom, Vaughan W Rees, Kathleen Reid, Jeannie Wong, Taru Kinnunen
Tobacco Induced Diseases
 
18.
Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: Results from a community-based study
Joshua E. Muscat, Hsiao-Pin Liu, Steven D. Stellman, John P. Richie
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
 
19.
Menthol facilitates dopamine-releasing effect of nicotine in rat nucleus accumbens
Meiyu Zhang, Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Thuy Tran, Xiu Liu
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
 
20.
Menthol Smoking Patterns and Smoking Perceptions Among Youth: Findings From the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study
Amy M. Cohn, Shyanika W. Rose, Joanne D'Silva, Andrea C. Villanti
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
 
eISSN:1617-9625