The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers
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Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
Health Promotion and Education, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
Epidemiology/Biostatistics/Population Medicine, Schools of Public Health and Medicine, Loma Linda, California, USA
Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Population Medicine, Loma Linda, California, USA
Submission date: 2016-11-28
Acceptance date: 2017-06-07
Publication date: 2017-07-03
Corresponding author
Naif H. Alanazi   

Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2017;15(July):29
Waterpipe and cigarette smoking have been found to be associated with each other as cigarette smokers were more likely to be waterpipe users than non-cigarette smokers. Also, waterpipe smokers were likely to be former daily cigarette users. The aim of this study is to examine the likelihood of waterpipe use leading to cigarette use among current waterpipe users using theory of planned behavior.

Four hundred six current waterpipe smokers who initially had started tobacco use with the waterpipe were recruited from 15 waterpipe lounges in 2015. From a total of 70 waterpipe lounges in Riyadh, the 15 waterpipe lounges were selected randomly and participants were also selected randomly inside each waterpipe lounge based on the table or section number. The survey was developed using the Qualtrics Online Survey Software and participants completed a survey using iPad tablets.

Cigarette smoking and intention to smoke cigarettes were predicted by attitude and perceived behavioral control. There was no direct effect of subjective norm on the cigarette use behavior, yet subjective norm had a statistically significant indirect effect on intentions through attitude and perceived behavioral control.

The findings of this study could be useful in prevention/intervention programs aimed at reducing tobacco smoking behaviors among waterpipe users. Intervention programs might be directed at the attitude and perceived behavioral control by targeting underlying behavioral and control beliefs. The theory of planned behavior provided solid explanations of intention to use cigarettes among waterpipe smokers.

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