Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on the Smoking-related Risk of Periodontal Disease: the Population-based Study SHIP
P Meisel 1  
G Heins 1
LE Carlsson 2
J Giebel 3
U John 4
C Schwahn 5
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Department of Pharmacology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Department of Immunology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Department of Anatomy, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Department of Epidemiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Department of Periodontics, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
P Meisel   

Department of Pharmacology, F.-Loeffler.Str.23d, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany
Publish date: 2003-09-15
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2003;1(September):197
Periodontitis is a bacterial inflammatory disease leading to attachment loss with the consequence of tooth loss. There exists a multifactorial risk pattern including bacterial challenge, smoking, age, sex, diabetes, socio-economic and genetic factors. Smoking has the highest impact on the course of the disease modulated by all the other factors. Here, we report the relationship between smoking and the polymorphisms of genetic polymorphisms inflicted in the pathogenesis. In a randomly selected population-based study, 1083 subjects were typed for the polymorphisms of the IL-1 genotype, FcγRIIIb receptor gene, myeloperoxidase and Nacetyltransferase (NAT2) and related to their periodontal state. Smoking behavior was assessed including present and past quality and quantity of smoking. There is a significant dose-effect relationship between the exposure to tobacco smoke and the extent of periodontal disease assessed as attachment loss and tooth loss. Moreover, there are gene-environmental interactions as subjects bearing variant genotypes show an enhanced smoking-associated risk of the disease modulated by these genotypes. In nonsmokers, the impact of these genetic polymorphisms is mostly negligible. This study provides support for the hypothesis that subjects bearing genetic variants of polymorphically expressed phenotypes are at an increased risk of periodontitis when smoking. Mostly, this may be accomplished via the influence of smoking-related impairment on defense mechanisms rather than on the pathogenic pathways.
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