RESEARCH PAPER
Predictors of oxidative stress and vascular function in an experimental study of tobacco versus electronic cigarettes: A post hoc analysis of the SUR-VAPES 1 Study
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Medico- Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy
2
Department of Angiocardioneurology, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy
3
Division of Radiology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
4
National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
5
Department of Clinical Research, Federal University of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Publish date: 2018-05-08
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(May):18
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Use of a conventional cigarette (CC) or electronic cigarette (EC) leads to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, but the impact of other features and their interplay with CCs and ECs have been incompletely appraised. We explored moderators of CC and EC effects on oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

Methods:
We have conducted an experimental study on CCs and ECs in which repeated indicators of oxidative stress (serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide, nitric oxide bioavailability, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α-III, and vitamin E) and endothelial dysfunction (flow-mediated dilation) were collected in 40 subjects (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers). Several moderating features were appraised, adjusting for smoking status and cigarette type.

Results:
Absolute changes in oxidative stress and vascular features after smoking a CC or vaping an EC were significantly correlated (all p<0.05), with the notable exception of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α-III levels (p=0.030). Inferential analysis based on generalized estimating equations highlighted that the only variable significantly associated with oxidative stress and vascular features was smoking status (all p<0.05). Specifically, we found that smokers had a less pronounced untoward oxidative and vascular response after vaping an EC in comparison to non-smokers, who had oxidative and vascular reactions to an EC that resembled more those seen after smoking a CC. Intriguingly, women taking oral contraceptives appeared to have more unfavorable changes in vitamin E (p=0.002) and FMD (p=0.008).

Conclusions:
This study suggests that the comparative oxidative and vascular effects of an EC versus a CC may be influenced by smoking status, with a potential interaction in women taking oral contraceptives. These findings need further confirmation but could have important clinical and policy implications.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai   
Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 74, 04100 Latina, Italy
 
REFERENCES (16):
1. Carnevale R, Sciarretta S, Violi F, et al. Acute Impact of Tobacco vs Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Oxidative Stress and Vascular Function. Chest. 2016;150:606-612. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2016.04.012
2. Polosa R, Caponnetto P. The Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2608. doi:10.1056/nejmc1613869
3. Dinakar Ch, O’Connor GT. The Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2608-2609. doi:10.1056/nejmc1613869
4. Kasza KA, Ambrose BK, Conway KP, et al. Tobacco-Product Use by Adults and Youths in the United States in 2013 and 2014. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:342-353. doi:10.1056/nejmsa1607538
5. Hahn J, Monakhova YB, Hengen J, et al. Electronic cigarettes: overview of chemical composition and exposure estimation. Tob Induc Dis. 2014;12:23. doi:10.1186/s12971-014-0023-6
6. Violi F, Pignatelli P. Clinical Application of NOX Activity and Other Oxidative Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Review. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015;23:514-532. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5790
7. Matsuzawa Y, Kwon TG, Lennon RJ, Lerman LO, Lerman A. Prognostic Value of Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Brachial Artery and Fingertip Artery for Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4:e002270. doi:10.1161/jaha.115.002270
8. Loffredo L, Marcoccia A, Pignatelli P, et al. Oxidative-stress-mediated arterial dysfunction in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:608-612. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl533
9. Grassi D, Desideri G, Ferri L, Aggio A, Tiberti S, Ferri C. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction: say NO to cigarette smoking! Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:2539-2550. doi:10.2174/138161210792062867
10. Donohue JF. Ageing, smoking and oxidative stress. Thorax. 2006;61:461-462. doi:10.1136/thx.2005.053058
11. Kamceva G, Arsova-Sarafinovska Z, Ruskovska T, Zdravkovska M, Kamceva-Panova L, Stikova E. Cigarette Smoking and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2016;4:636-640. doi:10.3889/oamjms.2016.117
12. Chen J, Bullen C, Dirks K. A Comparative Health Risk Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14. doi:10.3390/ijerph14040382
13. Pierini D, Bryan NS. Nitric oxide availability as a marker of oxidative stress. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1208:63-71. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1441-8_5
14. Elesber AA, Best PJ, Lennon RJ, et al. Plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha, a marker of oxidative stress, is increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Free Radic Res. 2006;40:385-391. doi:10.1080/10715760500539154
15. Moheimani RS, Bhetraratana M, Yin F, et al. Increased cardiac sympathetic activity and oxidation stress in habitual electronic cigarette users: Implications of cardiovascular risk. JAMA Cardiology. 2017;2(3):278-284. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.5303
16. Riley HE, Berry-Bibee E, England LJ, Jamieson DJ, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM. Hormonal contraception among electronic cigarette users and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review. Contraception. 2016;93:190-208. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.11.003
 
CITATIONS (1):
1. Impact of Tobacco Versus Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Platelet Function
Cristina Nocella, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Mariangela Peruzzi, Francesca Pagano, Lorenzo Loffredo, Pasquale Pignatelli, Chris Bullen, Giacomo Frati, Roberto Carnevale
The American Journal of Cardiology
eISSN:1617-9625