The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development
More details
Hide details
Lung Development Section, Biology of Breathing Group, Manitoba Institute of Child Health & Departments of Oral Biology and Anatomy, Faculties of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
Publication date: 2004-03-15
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2004;2(March):3
Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system.
Goodman J: Webs of drug dependence: Towards a political history of Tobacco. Ashes to Ashes: The History of Smoking and Health. Edited by: Lock S, Reynolds LA, Tansey EM. 1995, Rodopi B.V. Amsterdam, 5-39.
Walton J: The Faber book of smoking. 2000, Faber and Faber, London.
Doll R: The first reports on smoking and lung cancer. Ashes to Ashes: The History of Smoking and Health. Edited by: Lock S, Reynolds LA, Tansey EM. 1995, Rodopi B.V. Amsterdam, 130-140.
Tilley NM: The Bright Tobacco Industry 1860–1929. 1948, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Porter PG: Origins of the American Tobacco Company. Business History Review. 1969, 43: 59-76.
Hilton M: Smoking in British Popular Culture. Studies in Popular Culture. Edited by: Richards J. 2000, Manchester University Press, Manchester U.K.
Doll R, Hill AB: Smoking and carcinoma of the lung. Br Med J. 1950, 2: 739.
Anthony HM: Reactive changes in the blood of smokers and the development of arterial diseases and COPD, a review: evidence of associations between changes and subsequent disease with implications for the evaluation of harmful effects of cigarettes, and for susceptibility to the chronic effects of inhaled pollutants. Rev Environ Health. 1989, 8: 25-86.
Cersosimo RJ: Lung cancer: a review. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002, 59: 611-642.
Coxson HO, Rogers RM, Whittall KP, D'Yachkova Y, Pare PD, Sciurba FC, Hogg JC: A quantification of the lung surface area in emphysema using computed tomography. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999, 159: 851-856.
Wiebe BM, Laursen H: Human lung volume, alveolar surface area, and capillary length. Microsc Res Tech. 1995, 32: 255-262.
McCrae K, Shaw A, Mantsch HH, Thliveris JA, Das RM, Ahmed MK, Scott JE: Lung cancer. Occurrence and new possibilities for detection. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 1999, 12: I-XIII.
Coxson HO, Hogg JC: Erratum: a quantification of the lung surface area in emphysema using computed tomography. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001, 163: 1500-1501.
Sorokin S: The cells of the lungs. Morphology of Experimental Carcinogesis. Edited by: Nettesheim P, Hana P, Deatherage JW. 1970, CONF 700501, Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tenn, 3-43.
Chretien J, Grandordy B: [Defense mechanisms of the respiratory system]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr Suppl. 1983, 15: 36-42.
Greenberger PA: Immunologic aspects of lung diseases and cystic fibrosis. JAMA. 1997, 278: 1924-1930.
Mason CD, Rand TG, Oulton M, MacDonald JM, Scott JE: Effects of Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) conidia and isolated toxin on lung surfactant production and homeostasis. Nat Toxins. 1998, 6: 27-33.
Phelps DS: Surfactant regulation of host defense function in the lung: a question of balance. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 2001, 20: 269-292.
van Golde LM: Pulmonary Surfactants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 1-366.
Creuwels LA, van Golde LM, Haagsman HP: The pulmonary surfactant system: biochemical and clinical aspects. Lung. 1997, 175: 1-39.
Grunder R, Gehr P, Bachofen H, Schurch S, Siegenthaler H: Structures of surfactant films: a scanning force microscopy study. Eur Respir J. 1999, 14: 1290-1296.
Walters DV: Lung lining liquid – the hidden depths. The 5th Nils W. Svenningsen memorial lecture. Biol Neonate. 2002, 81 (Suppl 1): 2-5.
Veldhuizen R, Nag K, Orgeig S, Possmayer F: The role of lipids in pulmonary surfactant. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 90-108.
Batenburg JJ, Haagsman HP: The lipids of pulmonary surfactant: dynamics and interactions with proteins. Prog Lipid Res. 1998, 37: 235-276.
Dobbs LG: Pulmonary surfactant. Annu Rev Med. 1989, 40: 431-446.
Akino T: Lipid components of the surfactant system. Pulmonary Surfactant: from molecular biology to clinical practice. Edited by: van Golde LMG, Batenburg JJ. 1992, Elsevier Science Publishers, New York NY, 19-31.
Goerke J: Pulmonary surfactant: functions and molecular composition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 79-89.
Orgeig S, Daniels CB: The roles of cholesterol in pulmonary surfactant: insights from comparative and evolutionary studies. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001, 129: 75-89.
Tolle A, Meier W, Rudiger M, Hofmann KP, Rustow B: Effect of cholesterol and surfactant protein B on the viscosity of phospholipid mixtures. Chem Phys Lipids. 2002, 114: 159-168.
Harwood JLRichards RJ: Lung Surfactant. Molecular Aspects Of Medicine. 1985, 8: 423-514.
Gurr MI, Harwood JL, Frayn KN: Lipid biochemistry: an introduction. 2002, Oxford; Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 5.
Hamm H, Fabel H, Bartsch W: The surfactant system of the adult lung: physiology and clinical perspectives. Clin-Investig. 1992, 70 (8): 637-57.
Kahn MC, Anderson GJ, Anyan WR, Hall SB: Phosphatidylcholine molecular species of calf lung surfactant. Am J Physiol. 1995, 269: L567-573.
Daniels C, Orgeig S: Understanding the evolution of developmental physiology using cell culture and tissue regeneration models. New Directions in Comparative Developmental Physiology. Edited by: Warburton S. 2004, Oxford University Press.
Langman C, Orgeig S, Daniels CB: Alterations in composition and function of surfactant associated with torpor in Sminthopsis crassicaudata. Am J Physiol. 1996, 271: R437-445.
Daniels CB, Lopatko OV, Orgeig S: Evolution of surface activity related functions of vertebrate pulmonary surfactant. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998, 25: 716-721.
Daniels CB, Orgeig S, Wood PG, Sullivan LC, Lopatko OV, Smits AV: The changing state of surfactant lipids: New insights from ancient animals. American Zoologist. 1998, 38: 305.
Daniels CB, Barr HA, Power JH, Nicholas TE: Body temperature alters the lipid composition of pulmonary surfactant in the lizard Ctenophorus nuchalis. Exp Lung Res. 1990, 16: 435-449.
Bachofen H, Schurch S: Alveolar surface forces and lung architecture. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001, 129: 183-193.
King RJ: Pulmonary surface active material: Basic concepts. Mead Johnson Symposium on Perinatal and Developmental Medicine, No. 14. 1978, Mead Johnson & Co. Evansville Indiana, U.S.A. 47721.
Schurch S, Green FH, Bachofen H: Formation and structure of surface films: captive bubble surfactometry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 180-202.
Rodriguez-Capote K, Nag K, Schurch S, Possmayer F: Surfactant protein interactions with neutral and acidic phospholipid films. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001, 281: L231-242.
Ross M, Krol S, Janshoff A, Galla HJ: Kinetics of phospholipid insertion into monolayers containing the lung surfactant proteins SP-B or SP-C. Eur Biophys J. 2002, 31: 52-61.
Schurch S, Possmayer F, Cheng S, Cockshutt AM: Pulmonary SP-A enhances adsorption and appears to induce surface sorting of lipid extract surfactant. Am J Physiol. 1992, 263: L210-218.
Amrein M, von Nahmen A, Sieber M: A scanning force- and fluorescence light microscopy study of the structure and function of a model pulmonary surfactant. Eur Biophys J. 1997, 26: 349-357.
Datta DB: A comprehensive intorduction to membrane biochemistry. 1987, Floral Publishing, Madison, Wisconsin.
Bleasdale JE: Regulation of the lipid composition of lung surfactant. Inositol and phosphoinositides. Metabolism and Regulation. Edited by: Bleasdale JE, Eichberg J, Hauser G. 1985, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, 13-30.
Kogon DP, Oulton M, Gray JH, Liston RM, Luther ER, Peddle LJ, Young DC: Amniotic fluid phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine phosphorus as predictors of fetal lung maturity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986, 154 (2): 226-30.
Ashwood ER: Standards of laboratory practice: evaluation of fetal lung maturity. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. Clin Chem. 1997, 43: 211-214.
DeRoche ME, Ingardia CJ, Guerette PJ, Wu AH, LaSala CA, Mandavilli SR: The use of lamellar body counts to predict fetal lung maturity in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002, 187: 908-912.
Loret de Mola JR, Judge N, Entsminger C, DeViney M, Muise KL, Duchon MA: Indirect prediction of fetal lung maturity. Value of ultra-sonographic colonic and placental grading. J Reprod Med. 1998, 43: 898-902.
Hallman M, Enhorning G, Possmayer F: Composition and surface activity of normal and phosphatidylglycerol-deficient lung surfactant. Pediatr Res. 1985, 19: 286-292.
Beppu OS, Clements JA, Goerke J: Phosphatidylglycerol-deficient lung surfactant has normal properties. J Appl Physiol. 1983, 55: 496-502.
Takamoto DY, Lipp MM, von Nahmen A, Lee KY, Waring AJ, Zasadzinski JA: Interaction of lung surfactant proteins with anionic phospholipids. Biophys J. 2001, 81: 153-169.
Rooney SA, Young SL, Mendelson CR: Molecular and cellular processing of lung surfactant. FASEB J. 1994, 8: 957-967.
Sanders RL: The composition of pulmonary surfactant. Lung Development: Biological and Clinical Perspectives. Edited by: Farrell PM. 1982, Academic Press New York NY, I: 179-210.
Wong CJ, Akiyama J, Allen L, Hawgood S: Localization and developmental expression of surfactant proteins D and A in the respiratory tract of the mouse. Pediatr Res. 1996, 39: 930-937.
McCormack FX: Structure, processing and properties of surfactant protein A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 109-131.
Griese M: Pulmonary surfactant in health and human lung diseases: state of the art. Eur Respir J. 1999, 13: 1455-1476.
McCormack FX, Pattanajitvilai S, Stewart J, Possmayer F, Inchley K, Voelker DR: The Cys6 intermolecular disulfide bond and the collagen-like region of rat SP-A play critical roles in interactions with alveolar type II cells and surfactant lipids. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 27971-27979.
Hawgood S, Shiffer K: Structures and properties of the surfactant-associated proteins. Annu Rev Physiol. 1991, 53: 375-394.
Yu SH, Wallace D, Bhavnani B, Enhorning G, Harding PG, Possmayer F: Effect of reconstituted pulmonary surfactant containing the 6000-dalton hydrophobic protein on lung compliance of prematurely delivered rabbit fetuses. Pediatr Res. 1988, 23: 23-30.
McCormack FX, Whitsett JA: The pulmonary collectins, SP-A and SP-D, orchestrate innate immunity in the lung. J Clin Invest. 2002, 109: 707-712.
Ruano ML, Nag K, Worthman LA, Casals C, Perez-Gil J, Keough KM: Differential partitioning of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-A into regions of monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. Biophys J. 1998, 74: 1101-1109.
Rodriguez-Capote K, McCormack FX, Possmayer F: Pulmonary surfactant protein-A (SP-A) restores the surface properties of surfactant after oxidation by a mechanism that requires the Cys6 interchain disulfide bond and the phospholipid binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2003.
Tsuzuki A, Kuroki Y, Akino T: Pulmonary surfactant protein A-mediated uptake of phosphatidylcholine by alveolar type II cells. Am J Physiol. 1993, 265: L193-199.
Korfhagen TR, Bruno MD, Ross GF, Huelsman KM, Ikegami M, Jobe AH, Wert SE, Stripp BR, Morris RE, Glasser SW, Bachurski CJ, Iwamoto HS, Whitsett JA: Altered surfactant function and structure in SP-A gene targeted mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996, 93: 9594-9599.
Williams MC, Hawgood S, Hamilton RL: Changes in lipid structure produced by surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1991, 5: 41-50.
Ikegami M, Korfhagen TR, Whitsett JA, Bruno MD, Wert SE, Wada K, Jobe AH: Characteristics of surfactant from SP-A-deficient mice. Am J Physiol. 1998, 275: L247-254.
Persson A, Rust K, Chang D, Moxley M, Longmore W, Crouch E: CP4: a pneumocyte-derived collagenous surfactant-associated protein. Evidence for heterogeneity of collagenous surfactant proteins. Biochemistry. 1988, 27: 8576-8584.
Fisher JH, Mason R: Expression of pulmonary surfactant protein D in rat gastric mucosa. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1995, 12: 13-18.
Crouch E, Rust K, Persson A, Mariencheck W, Moxley M, Longmore W: Primary translation products of pulmonary surfactant protein D. Am J Physiol. 1991, 260: L247-253.
Crouch EC: Structure, biologic properties, and expression of surfactant protein D (SP-D). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 278-289.
Hartshorn KL, White MR, Shepherd V, Reid K, Jensenius JC, Crouch EC: Mechanisms of anti-influenza activity of surfactant proteins A and D: comparison with serum collectins. Am J Physiol. 1997, 273: L1156-1166.
Hartshorn KL, White MR, Voelker DR, Coburn J, Zaner K, Crouch EC: Mechanism of binding of surfactant protein D to influenza A viruses: importance of binding to haemagglutinin to antiviral activity. Biochem J. 2000, 351 (Pt 2): 449-458.
Ogasawara Y, Kuroki Y, Akino T: Pulmonary surfactant protein D specifically binds to phosphatidylinositol. J Biol Chem. 1992, 267: 21244-21249.
Taneva S, Voelker DR, Keough KM: Adsorption of pulmonary surfactant protein D to phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface. Biochemistry. 1997, 36: 8173-8179.
Zhang L, Ikegami M, Crouch EC, Korfhagen TR, Whitsett JA: Activity of pulmonary surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in vivo is dependent on oligomeric structure. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 19214-19219.
Fisher JH, Sheftelyevich V, Ho YS, Fligiel S, McCormack FX, Korfhagen TR, Whitsett JA, Ikegami M: Pulmonary-specific expression of SP-D corrects pulmonary lipid accumulation in SP-D gene-targeted mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000, 278: L365-373.
Ikegami M, Hull WM, Yoshida M, Wert SE, Whitsett JA: SP-D and GM-CSF regulate surfactant homeostasis via distinct mechanisms. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001, 281: L697-703.
Weaver TE: Synthesis, processing and secretion of surfactant proteins B and C. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 173-179.
Weaver TE, Whitsett JA: Function and regulation of expression of pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins. Biochem J. 1991, 273 (Pt 2): 249-264.
Hawgood S, Benson BJ, Schilling J, Damm D, Clements JA, White RT: Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of pulmonary surfactant protein SP 18 and evidence for cooperation between SP 18 and SP 28–36 in surfactant lipid adsorption. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1987, 84: 66-70.
Andersson M, Curstedt T, Jornvall H, Johansson J: An amphipathic helical motif common to tumourolytic polypeptide NK-lysin and pulmonary surfactant polypeptide SP-B. FEBS Lett. 1995, 362: 328-332.
Shanmukh S, Howell P, Baatz JE, Dluhy RA: Effect of hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C on phospholipid monolayers. Protein structure studied using 2D IR and beta correlation analysis. Biophys J. 2002, 83: 2126-2141.
deMello DE, Heyman S, Phelps DS, Hamvas A, Nogee L, Cole S, Colten HR: Ultrastructure of lung in surfactant protein B deficiency. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1994, 11: 230-239.
Clark JC, Wert SE, Bachurski CJ, Stahlman MT, Stripp BR, Weaver TE, Whitsett JA: Targeted disruption of the surfactant protein B gene disrupts surfactant homeostasis, causing respiratory failure in newborn mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995, 92: 7794-7798.
Nogee LM, Garnier G, Dietz HC, Singer L, Murphy AM, deMello DE, Colten HR: A mutation in the surfactant protein B gene responsible for fatal neonatal respiratory disease in multiple kindreds. J Clin Invest. 1994, 93: 1860-1863.
Johansson J: Structure and properties of surfactant protein C. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998, 1408: 161-172.
Glasser SW, Burhans MS, Eszterhas SK, Bruno MD, Korfhagen TR: Human SP-C gene sequences that confer lung epithelium-specific expression in transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000, 278: L933-945.
Voss T, Schafer KP, Nielsen PF, Schafer A, Maier C, Hannappel E, Maassen J, Landis B, Klemm K, Przybylski M: Primary structure differences of human surfactant-associated proteins isolated from normal and proteinosis lung. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992, 1138: 261-267.
Pastrana B, Mautone AJ, Mendelsohn R: Fourier transform infrared studies of secondary structure and orientation of pulmonary surfactant SP-C and its effect on the dynamic surface properties of phospholipids. Biochemistry. 1991, 30: 10058-10064.
Creuwels LA, Demel RA, van Golde LM, Benson BJ, Haagsman HP: Effect of acylation on structure and function of surfactant protein C at the air-liquid interface. J Biol Chem. 1993, 268: 26752-26758.
Bi X, Flach CR, Perez-Gil J, Plasencia I, Andreu D, Oliveira E, Mendelsohn R: Secondary structure and lipid interactions of the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant SP-C in Langmuir films: IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy and surface pressure studies. Biochemistry. 2002, 41: 8385-8395.
Flach CR, Gericke A, Keough KM, Mendelsohn R: Palmitoylation of lung surfactant protein SP-C alters surface thermodynamics, but not protein secondary structure or orientation in 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine langmuir films. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999, 1416: 11-20.
Johansson J, Nilsson G, Stromberg R, Robertson B, Jornvall H, Curstedt T: Secondary structure and biophysical activity of synthetic analogues of the pulmonary surfactant polypeptide SP-C. Biochem J. 1995, 307 (Pt 2): 535-541.
Burri PH: Morphology and respiratory function of the alveolar unit. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985, 76 (Suppl 1): 2-12.
Evans MJ: Oxidant gases. Environ Health Perspect. 1984, 55: 85-95.
Chevalier G, Collet AJ: In vivo incorporation of choline- 3 H, leucine- 3 H and galactose- 3 H in alveolar type II pneumocytes in relation to surfactant synthesis. A quantitative radoautographic study in mouse by electron microscopy. Anat Rec. 1972, 174: 289-310.
Batenburg JJ: Surfactant phospholipids: synthesis and storage. Am J Physiol. 1992, 262: L367-385.
Wright JR, Clements JA: Metabolism and turnover of lung surfactant. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987, 136: 426-444.
Mendelson CR, Boggaram V: Hormonal control of the surfactant system in fetal lung. Annu Rev Physiol. 1991, 53: 415-440.
Ballard PL: Hormonal control of lung maturation. Bailliere's Clin Endocr Metab. 1989, 3: 723-753.
Bates SR, Tao JQ, Schaller S, Fisher AB, Shuman H: Lamellar body membrane turnover is stimulated by secretagogues. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000, 278: L443-452.
Gobran LI, Rooney SA: Surfactant secretagogue activation of protein kinase C isoforms in cultured rat type II cells. Am-J-Physiol. 1999, 277: L251-256.
Moxley MA, Jacoby J, Longmore WJ: Uptake and reutilization of surfactant phospholipids by type II cells of isolated perfused lung. Am J Physiol. 1991, 260: L268-273.
Scott JE: Phosphatidylcholine synthesis, secretion, and reutilization during differentiation of the surfactant-producing type II alveolar cell from fetal rabbit lungs. Exp Lung Res. 1992, 18: 563-580.
Kresch MJ, Cipriani LA, Lu H, Christian C: Developmental regulation of re-uptake of phosphatidylcholine by type II alveolar epithelium. Bio-chim-Biophys-Acta. 1994, 1210 (2): 167-73.
Jacobs H, Jobe A, Ikegami M, Conaway D: The significance of reutilization of surfactant phosphatidylcholine. J Biol Chem. 1983, 258: 4159-4165.
Gross NJ, Narine KR: Surfactant subtypes of mice: metabolic relationships and conversion in vitro. J Appl Physiol. 1989, 67: 414-421.
Gross NJ, Kellam M, Young J, Krishnasamy S, Dhand R: Separation of alveolar surfactant into subtypes. A comparison of methods. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000, 162: 617-622.
Gross NJ, Narine KR: Surfactant subtypes in mice: characterization and quantitation. J Appl Physiol. 1989, 66: 342-349.
Knells G, Ahmed MK, Das RM, Oulton MR, Mantsch HH, Scott JE: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of rabbit lung surfactant: subfraction-associated phospholipid and protein profiles. Chem Phys Lipids. 1995, 77: 193-201.
Oulton M, Moores HK, Scott JE, Janigan DT, Hajela R: Effects of smoke inhalation on surfactant phospholipids and phospholipase A2 activity in the mouse lung. Am J Pathol. 1991, 138: 195-202.
Oulton MR, Janigan DT, MacDonald JM, Faulkner GT, Scott JE: Effects of smoke inhalation on alveolar surfactant subtypes in mice. Am J Pathol. 1994, 145: 941-950.
Bastacky J, Lee CY, Goerke J, Koushafar H, Yager D, Kenaga L, Speed TP, Chen Y, Clements JA: Alveolar lining layer is thin and continuous: low-temperature scanning electron microscopy of rat lung. J Appl Physiol. 1995, 79: 1615-1628.
Pastrana-Rios B, Flach CR, Brauner JW, Mautone AJ, Mendelsohn R: A direct test of the "squeeze-out" hypothesis of lung surfactant function. External reflection FT-IR at the air/water interface. Biochemistry. 1994, 33: 5121-5127.
von Nahmen A, Schenk M, Sieber M, Amrein M: The structure of a model pulmonary surfactant as revealed by scanning force microscopy. Biophys J. 1997, 72: 463-469.
Knebel D, Sieber M, Reichelt R, Galla HJ, Amrein M: Scanning force microscopy at the air-water interface of an air bubble coated with pulmonary surfactant. Biophys J. 2002, 82: 474-480.
Taneva S, Keough KM: Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in spread monolayers at the air-water interface: II. Monolayers of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C and phospholipids. Biophys J. 1994, 66: 1149-1157.
Taneva SG, Keough KM: Dynamic surface properties of pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their mixtures with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Biochemistry. 1994, 33: 14660-14670.
Simonato L, Agudo A, Ahrens W, Benhamou E, Benhamou S, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Darby SC, Forastiere F, Fortes C, Gaborieau V, Gerken M, Gonzales CA, Jockel KH, Kreuzer M, Merletti F, Nyberg F, Pershagen G, Pohlabeln H, Rosch F, Whitley E, Wichmann HE, Zambon P: Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in Europe: an update of risk estimates and an assessment of inter-country heterogeneity. Int J Cancer. 2001, 91: 876-887.
Shields PG: Molecular epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer. Oncogene. 2002, 21: 6870-6876.
Hecht SS: Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999, 91: 1194-1210.
Kreuzer M, Heinrich J, Kreienbrock L, Rosario AS, Gerken M, Wichmann HE: Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmoking women. Int J Cancer. 2002, 100: 706-713.
Hu J, Mao Y, Dryer D, White K: Risk factors for lung cancer among Canadian women who have never smoked. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002, 26: 129-138.
Robin M, Dong P, Hermans C, Bernard A, Bersten AD, Doyle IR: Serum levels of CC16, SP-A and SP-B reflect tobacco-smoke exposure in asymptomatic subjects. Eur Respir J. 2002, 20: 1152-1161.
Nikula KJ, Vallyathan V, Green FH, Hahn FF: Influence of exposure concentration or dose on the distribution of particulate material in rat and human lungs. Environ Health Perspect. 2001, 109: 311-318.
Pinkerton KE, Green FH, Saiki C, Vallyathan V, Plopper CG, Gopal V, Hung D, Bahne EB, Lin SS, Menache MG, Schenker MB: Distribution of particulate matter and tissue remodeling in the human lung. Environ Health Perspect. 2000, 108: 1063-1069.
Langer AM, Nolan RP, Bowes DR, Shirey SB: Inorganic particles found in cigarette tobacco, cigarette ash and cigarette smoke. Biological Interactions of Inhaled Mineral Fibers and Cigarette Smoke. Edited by: Wehner AP. 1989, Batelle Press, Columbus, Ohio, 421-439.
Darquenne C, Paiva M: Two- and three-dimensional simulations of aerosol transport and deposition in alveolar zone of human lung. J Appl Physiol. 1996, 80: 1401-1414.
Churg A, Wright JL, Stevens B: Exogenous mineral particles in the human bronchial mucosa and lung parenchyma. I. Nonsmokers in the general population. Exp Lung Res. 1990, 16: 159-175.
Churg A, Wright JL, Stevens B, Wiggs B: Mineral particles in the human bronchial mucosa and lung parenchyma. II. Cigarette smokers without emphysema. Exp Lung Res. 1992, 18: 687-714.
Gehr P, Green FH, Geiser M, Im Hof V, Lee MM, Schurch S: Airway surfactant, a primary defense barrier: mechanical and immunological aspects. J Aerosol Med. 1996, 9: 163-181.
Banerjee R, Bellare J: Effect of calcium on the surface properties of phospholipid monolayers with respect to surfactant formulations in respiratory distress syndrome. Biomed Mater Eng. 2001, 11: 43-53.
Bracci R: Free oxygen radicals and surfactant. Biol Neonate. 1997, 71 (Suppl 1): 23-27.
Keough KM, Parsons CS, Tweeddale MG: Interactions between plasma proteins and pulmonary surfactant: pulsating bubble studies. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1989, 67: 663-668.
Miller D, Bondurant S: Effects of cigarette smoke on the surface characteristics of lung extracts. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1962, 85: 692-696.
Cook WA, Webb WR: Surfactant in chronic smokers. Ann Thorac Surg. 1966, 2: 327-333.
Schmekel B, Bos JA, Khan AR, Wohlfart B, Lachmann B, Wollmer P: Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers. Thorax. 1992, 47: 603-608.
Higenbottam T: Lung lipids and disease. Respiration. 1989, 55 (Suppl 1): 14-27.
Ballinger SW, Bouder TG, Davis GS, Judice SA, Nicklas JA, Albertini RJ: Mitochondrial genome damage associated with cigarette smoking. Cancer Res. 1996, 56: 5692-5697.
Leanderson P, Tagesson C: Cigarette smoke-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung cells: role of hydroxyl radicals and endonuclease activation. Chem Biol Interact. 1992, 81: 197-208.
Matsumoto K, Aizawa H, Inoue H, Takata S, Shigyo M, Hara N: Role of thromboxane-A2 and cholinergic mechanisms in bronchoconstriction induced by cigarette smoke in guineapigs. Eur Respir J. 1996, 9: 2468-2473.
Wright JL: The importance of ultramicroscopic emphysema in cigarette smoke-induced lung disease. Lung. 2001, 179: 71-81.
Petty TL: COPD in perspective. Chest. 2002, 121: 116S-120S.
Lemjabbar H, Li D, Gallup M, Sidhu S, Drori E, Basbaum C: Tobacco Smoke-induced Lung Cell Proliferation Mediated by Tumor Necrosis Factor {alpha}-converting Enzyme and Amphiregulin. J Biol Chem. 2003, 278: 26202-26207.
Finley TN, Ladman AJ: Low yield of pulmonary surfactant in cigarette smokers. N Engl J Med. 1972, 286: 223-227.
Low RB, Davis GS, Giancola MS: Biochemical analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of healthy human volunteer smokers and nonsmokers. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1978, 118: 863-875.
Schmekel B, Khan AR, Linden M, Wollmer P: Recoveries of phosphatidylcholine and alveolar macrophages in lung lavage from healthy light smokers. Clin Physiol. 1991, 11: 431-438.
Wurtemberger G, Herceg R, Matthys H, Ferber E, Costabel U: [Surfactant phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers with healthy lungs and non-smokers]. Pneumologie. 1990, 44 (Suppl 1): 310-311.
Hughes DA, Haslam PL: Effect of smoking on the lipid composition of lung lining fluid and relationship between immunostimulatory lipids, inflammatory cells and foamy macrophages in extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Eur Respir J. 1990, 3: 1128-1139.
Mancini NM, Bene MC, Gerard H, Chabot F, Faure G, Polu JM, Lesur O: Early effects of short-time cigarette smoking on the human lung: a study of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Lung. 1993, 171: 277-291.
Zetterberg G, Curstedt T, Eklund A: A possible alteration of surfactant in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid from healthy smokers compared to non-smokers and patients with sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis. 1995, 12: 46-50.
Subramaniam S, Bummer P, Gairola CG: Biochemical and biophysical characterization of pulmonary surfactant in rats exposed chronically to cigarette smoke. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1995, 27: 63-69.
Orgeig S, Daniels CB, Johnston SD, Sullivan LC: The pattern of surfactant cholesterol during vertebrate evolution and development: does ontogeny recapitulate phylogeny?. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2003, 15: 55-73.
Wang H, Liu X, Umino T, Skold CM, Zhu Y, Kohyama T, Spurzem JR, Romberger DJ, Rennard SI: Cigarette smoke inhibits human bronchial epithelial cell repair processes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001, 25: 772-779.
Honda Y, Takahashi H, Kuroki Y, Akino T, Abe S: Decreased contents of surfactant proteins A and D in BAL fluids of healthy smokers. Chest. 1996, 109: 1006-1009.
Jimenez Ruiz CA, Rajas O, Ruiz A, Ramos A, Florez S, Ramos L, Solano S, Fornies E: Bronchoalveolar lavage in smokers: quantification of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils as markers of bronchial obstruction. In Vivo. 1998, 12: 427-430.
Warr GA, Martin RR: Histochemical staining and in vitro spreading of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages: variability with cigarette smoking status. J Reticuloendothel Soc. 1978, 23: 53-62.
Warr GA: The biology of normal human bronchoalveolar cells. INSERM. 1979, 84: 137-158.
Hallman M, Merritt TA, Bry K: The fate of exogenous surfactant in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1994, 26: 215-232.
Kimoto A, Saito M, Hirano Y, Iwai T, Tomioka K, Miyata K, Yamada T: YM-40461, a potent surfactant secretagogue, improves mucociliary clearance in SO2-exposed guinea pigs. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2000, 83: 191-196.
Morgenroth K, Bolz J: Morphological features of the interaction between mucus and surfactant on the bronchial mucosa. Respiration. 1985, 47: 225-231.
Rubin BK: Physiology of airway mucus clearance. Respir Care. 2002, 47: 761-768.
Geiser M, Im Hof V, Siegenthaler W, Grunder R, Gehr P: Ultrastructure of the aqueous lining layer in hamster airways: is there a two-phase system?. Microsc Res Tech. 1997, 36: 428-437.
Konrad FX, Schreiber T, Brecht-Kraus D, Georgieff M: Bronchial mucus transport in chronic smokers and nonsmokers during general anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 1993, 5: 375-380.
Singh I, Mehta M, Singh J, Yadav J: Nasal mucus clearance in chronic smokers. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 1994, 36: 133-136.
Bennett WD, Chapman WF, Gerrity TR: Ineffectiveness of cough for enhancing mucus clearance in asymptomatic smokers. Chest. 1992, 102: 412-416.
Basbaum C, Li D, Gensch E, Gallup M, Lemjabbar H: Mechanisms by which gram-positive bacteria and tobacco smoke stimulate mucin induction through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Novartis Found Symp. 2002, 248: 171-176. discussion 176–180, 277-182.
Mortensen J, Lange P, Nyboe J, Groth S: Lung mucociliary clearance. Eur J Nucl Med. 1994, 21: 953-961.
Di Stefano A, Caramori G, Oates T, Capelli A, Lusuardi M, Gnemmi I, Ioli F, Chung KF, Donner CF, Barnes PJ, Adcock IM: Increased expression of nuclear factor-kappaB in bronchial biopsies from smokers and patients with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2002, 20: 556-563.
Sleigh MA, Blake JR, Liron N: The propulsion of mucus by cilia. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988, 137: 726-741.
Subramaniam S, Whitsett JA, Hull W, Gairola CG: Alteration of pulmonary surfactant proteins in rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996, 140: 274-280.
Cockshutt AM, Absolom DR, Possmayer F: The role of palmitic acid in pulmonary surfactant: enhancement of surface activity and prevention of inhibition by blood proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991, 1085: 248-256.
Church DF, Pryor WA: Free-radical chemistry of cigarette smoke and its toxicological implications. Environ Health Perspect. 1985, 64: 111-126.
Lannan S, Donaldson K, Brown D, MacNee W: Effect of cigarette smoke and its condensates on alveolar epithelial cell injury in vitro. Am J Physiol. 1994, 266: L92-100.
Rahman I, Li XY, Donaldson K, Harrison DJ, MacNee W: Glutathione homeostasis in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro and lung in vivo under oxidative stress. Am J Physiol. 1995, 269: L285-292.
Hoshino Y, Mio T, Nagai S, Miki H, Ito I, Izumi T: Cytotoxic effects of cigarette smoke extract on an alveolar type II cell-derived cell line. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001, 281: L509-516.
D'Agostini F, Balansky RM, Izzotti A, Lubet RA, Kelloff GJ, De Flora S: Modulation of apoptosis by cigarette smoke and cancer chemopreventive agents in the respiratory tract of rats. Carcinogenesis. 2001, 22: 375-380.
Spragg RG, Li J: Effect of phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase overexpression on phosphatidylcholine synthesis in alveolar type II cells and related cell lines. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000, 22: 116-124.
Currie WD, van Schaik SM, Vargas I, Enhorning G: Ozone affects breathing and pulmonary surfactant function in mice. Toxicology. 1998, 125: 21-30.
Shelley SA: Oxidant-induced alterations of lung surfactant system. J Fla Med Assoc. 1994, 81: 49-51.
Aoshiba K, Koinuma M, Yokohori N, Nagai A: Immunohistochemical evaluation of oxidative stress in murine lungs after cigarette smoke exposure. Inhal Toxicol. 2003, 15: 1029-1038.
Bridges JP, Davis HW, Damodarasamy M, Kuroki Y, Howles G, Hui DY, McCormack FX: Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D are potent endogenous inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and oxidative cellular injury. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 38848-38855.
Kida K, Oda H, Yamano Y, Kagawa J: Effects of cigarette smoking on the serum concentration of lung surfactant protein A (SP-A). Eur Respir J. 1997, 10: 2124-2126.
Nomori H, Horio H, Fuyuno G, Kobayashi R, Morinaga S, Suemasu K: Serum surfactant protein A levels in healthy individuals are increased in smokers. Lung. 1998, 176: 355-361.
Mohsenin V, Gee JB: Acute effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on the functional activity of alpha-1-protease inhibitor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987, 136: 646-650.
Cosmi EV, Di Renzo GC: Prevention and treatment of fetal lung immaturity. Fetal Ther. 1989, 4: 52-62.
Meyer KC, Sharma A, Brown R, Weatherly M, Moya FR, Lewandoski J, Zimmerman JJ: Function and composition of pulmonary surfactant and surfactant-derived fatty acid profiles are altered in young adults with cystic fibrosis. Chest. 2000, 118: 164-174.
Enhorning G, Hohlfeld J, Krug N, Lema G, Welliver RC: Surfactant function affected by airway inflammation and cooling: possible impact on exercise-induced asthma. Eur Respir J. 2000, 15: 532-538.
Hohlfeld JM, Ahlf K, Enhorning G, Balke K, Erpenbeck VJ, Petschallies J, Hoymann HG, Fabel H, Krug N: Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in asthmatics after segmental allergen challenge. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999, 159: 1803-1809.
Cheng G, Ueda T, Sugiyama K, Toda M, Fukuda T: Compositional and functional changes of pulmonary surfactant in a guinea-pig model of chronic asthma. Respir Med. 2001, 95: 180-186.
Jouanel P, Motta C, Brun J, Molina C, Dastugue B: Phospholipids and microviscosity study in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids from control subjects and from patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Clin Chim Acta. 1981, 115: 211-221.
Kaup FJ, Drommer W, Damsch S, Deegen E: Ul-trastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). II: Pathomorphological changes of the terminal airways and the alveolar region. Equine Vet J. 1990, 22: 349-355.
Lusuardi M, Capelli A, Carli S, Tacconi MT, Salmona M, Donner CF: Role of surfactant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: therapeutic implications. Respiration. 1992, 59 (Suppl 1): 28-32.
Wirtz HR, Schmidt M: Acute influence of cigarette smoke on secretion of pulmonary surfactant in rat alveolar type II cells in culture. Eur Respir J. 1996, 9: 24-32.
Das SK, Tsao FH, Mukherjee S: Mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke exposure increases Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding proteins in guinea pig alveolar type II cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002, 231: 37-42.
Muller B, von Wichert P: Effect of nitrogen dioxide inhalation on surfactant phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993, 1170: 38-43.
Muller B, Seifart C, von Wichert P, Barth PJ: Adaptation of rat type II pneumocytes to NO2: effects of NO2 application mode on phosphatidylcholine metabolism. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998, 18: 712-720.
Knight M, Sekharam M, Patel J: The effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on the release of surfactant isolated from neonatal rabbit type II pneumocytes in culture. J Biochem Toxicol. 1995, 10: 309-313.
White E, Shy KK, Daling JR, Guthrie RD: Maternal smoking and infant respiratory distress syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 1986, 67: 365-370.
Curet LB, Rao AV, Zachman RD, Morrison J, Burkett G, Poole WK: Maternal smoking and respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983, 147: 446-450.
Wisborg K, Kesmodel U, Henriksen TB, Olsen SF, Secher NJ: Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and the risk of stillbirth and death in the first year of life. Am J Epidemiol. 2001, 154: 322-327.
Nelson E, Jodscheit K, Guo Y: Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and fetal developmental toxicity. Part 1: gross morphological effects. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1999, 18: 252-256.
Walsh RA: Effects of maternal smoking on adverse pregnancy outcomes: examination of the criteria of causation. Hum Biol. 1994, 66: 1059-1092.
Stick SM, Burton PR, Gurrin L, Sly PD, LeSouef PN: Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and a family history of asthma on respiratory function in newborn infants. Lancet. 1996, 348: 1060-1064.
Wasowicz M, Zurawski P, Florek E, Senczuk W, Biczysko W: Retardation of lung development after maternal cigarette smoking and low protein diet in animal model. Pol J Pathol. 1994, 45: 155-162.
Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Li YF, Rappaport EB, Peters JM: Effects of Early Onset Asthma and In Utero Exposure to Maternal Smoking on Childhood Lung Function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002.
Harding R: Sustained alterations in postnatal respiratory function following sub-optimal intrauterine conditions. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1995, 7: 431-441.
Ueda Y, Stick SM, Hall G, Sly PD: Control of breathing in infants born to smoking mothers. J Pediatr. 1999, 135: 226-232.
Collins MH, Moessinger AC, Kleinerman J, Bassi J, Rosso P, Collins AM, James LS, Blanc WA: Fetal lung hypoplasia associated with maternal smoking: a morphometric analysis. Pediatr Res. 1985, 19: 408-412.
Hanrahan JP, Tager IB, Segal MR, Tosteson TD, Castile RG, Van Vunakis H, Weiss ST, Speizer FE: The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on early infant lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992, 145: 1129-1135.
Li YF, Gilliland FD, Berhane K, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Rappaport EB, Peters JM: Effects of in utero and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in boys and girls with and without asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000, 162: 2097-2104.
Young S, Le Souef PN, Geelhoed GC, Stick SM, Turner KJ, Landau LI: The influence of a family history of asthma and parental smoking on airway responsiveness in early infancy. N Engl J Med. 1991, 324: 1168-1173.
Joad JP: Smoking and pediatric respiratory health. Clin Chest Med. 2000, 21: 37-46. vii–viii.
Haworth SGHislop AA: Lung development – the effects of chronic hypoxia. Semin Neonatol. 2003, 8: 1-8.
Segal MR, Wight S, Hanrahan JP, Tager IB: Maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth outcomes with weight gain adjustments via varying-coefficient models. Stat Med. 1997, 16: 1603-1616.
Lodrup Carlsen KC, Jaakkola JJ, Nafstad P, Carlsen KH: In utero exposure to cigarette smoking influences lung function at birth. Eur Respir J. 1997, 10: 1774-1779.
Cunningham J, Dockery DW, Speizer FE: Maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of lung function in children. Am J Epidemiol. 1994, 139: 1139-1152.
Nelson E, Goubet-Wiemers C, Guo Y, Jodscheit K: Maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and foetal developmental toxicity. Part 2: histological changes. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1999, 18: 257-264.
Tager IB, Ngo L, Hanrahan JP: Maternal smoking during pregnancy. Effects on lung function during the first 18 months of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995, 152: 977-983.
Hoo AF, Henschen M, Dezateux C, Costeloe K, Stocks J: Respiratory function among preterm infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998, 158: 700-705.
Joad JP, Ji C, Kott KS, Bric JM, Pinkerton KE: In utero and postnatal effects of sidestream cigarette smoke exposure on lung function, hyperresponsiveness, and neuroendocrine cells in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995, 132: 63-71.
Subramaniam S, Srinivasan S, Bummer PM, Gairola CG: Perinatal sidestream cigarette smoke exposure and the developing pulmonary surfactant system in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1999, 18: 206-211.
Pastrakuljic A, Schwartz R, Simone C, Derewlany LO, Knie B, Koren G: Transplacental transfer and biotransformation studies of nicotine in the human placental cotyledon perfused in vitro. Life Sci. 1998, 63: 2333-2342.
Luck W, Nau H: Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in serum and milk of nursing smokers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984, 18: 9-15.
Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL: Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002, 301: 594-598.
Luck W, Nau H, Hansen R, Steldinger R: Extent of nicotine and cotinine transfer to the human fetus, placenta and amniotic fluid of smoking mothers. Dev Pharmacol Ther. 1985, 8: 384-395.
Szuts T, Olsson S, Lindquist NG, Ullberg S, Pilotti A, Enzell C: Long-term fate of [14C]nicotine in the mouse: retention in the bronchi, melanin-containing tissues and urinary bladder wall. Toxicology. 1978, 10: 207-220.
Maritz GS, Thomas RA: Maternal nicotine exposure: response of type II pneumocytes of neonatal rat pups. Cell Biol Int. 1995, 19: 323-331.
Adamson IY, Hedgecock C, Bowden DH: Epithelial cell-fibroblast interactions in lung injury and repair. Am-J-Pathol. 1990, 137 (2): 385-92.
Iwatsuki H, Sasaki K, Suda M, Itano C: Cell differentiation of alveolar epithelium in the developing rat lung: ultrahistochemical studies of glyco-conjugates on the epithelial cell surface. Histo-chemistry. 1993, 100: 331-340.
Maritz GS, Burger B: The influence of maternal nicotine exposure on neonatal lung carbohydrate metabolism. Cell Biol Int Rep. 1992, 16: 1229-1236.
Maritz GS, Woolward K: Effect of maternal nicotine exposure on neonatal lung elastic tissue and possible consequences. S Afr Med J. 1992, 81: 517-519.
Maritz G, Svan Wyk G: Influence of maternal nicotine exposure on neonatal rat lung structure: protective effect of ascorbic acid. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1997, 117: 159-165.
Saetta M, Shiner RJ, Angus GE, Kim WD, Wang NS, King M, Ghezzo H, Cosio MG: Destructive index: a measurement of lung parenchymal destruction in smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985, 131: 764-769.
Sekhon HS, Jia Y, Raab R, Kuryatov A, Pankow JF, Whitsett JA, Lindstrom J, Spindel ER: Prenatal nicotine increases pulmonary alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression and alters fetal lung development in monkeys. J Clin Invest. 1999, 103: 637-647.
Sekhon HS, Keller JA, Proskocil BJ, Martin EL, Spindel ER: Maternal nicotine exposure upregulates collagen gene expression in fetal monkey lung. Association with alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002, 26: 31-41.
Schuller HM, Plummer HK, Jull BA: Receptor-mediated effects of nicotine and its nitrosated derivative NNK on pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. Anat Rec. 2003, 270A: 51-58.
Jull BA, Plummer HK, Schuller HM: Nicotinic receptor-mediated activation by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK of a Raf-1/MAP kinase pathway, resulting in phosphorylation of c-myc in human small cell lung carcinoma cells and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2001, 127: 707-717.
Lieberman E, Torday J, Barbieri R, Cohen A, Van Vunakis H, Weiss ST: Association of intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure with indices of fetal lung maturation. Obstet Gynecol. 1992, 79: 564-570.
Abel EL: Smoking and pregnancy. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1984, 16: 327-338.
Abel EL: Smoking during pregnancy: a review of effects on growth and development of offspring. Hum Biol. 1980, 52: 593-625.
Wuenschell CW, Zhao J, Tefft JD, Warburton D: Nicotine stimulates branching and expression of SP-A and SP-C mRNAs in embryonic mouse lung culture. Am J Physiol. 1998, 274: L165-170.
Jagoe K, Edwards R, Mugusi F, Whiting D, Unwin N: Tobacco smoking in Tanzania, East Africa: population based smoking prevalence using expired alveolar carbon monoxide as a validation tool. Tob Control. 2002, 11: 210-214.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top