Association of smoking or tobacco use with ear diseases among men: a retrospective study
More details
Hide details
Department of Statistics, Banasthali University, Jaipur 302001, India
17, Luv -Kush Nagar I, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur 302015, India
Dr KC Kasliwal’s ENT Centre, Paanch Batti, Jaipur 302001, India
Submission date: 2011-11-03
Acceptance date: 2012-04-03
Publication date: 2012-04-03
Corresponding author
Kiran Gaur   

Department of Statistics, Banasthali University, Jaipur 302001, India
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2012;10(April):4
Health related behaviour specially smoking and tobacco in any form are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Tobacco leads to various health problems including ear, nose and throat diseases.

To determine the influence of smoking or tobacco use on ear diseases we performed a retrospective study among men.

Of 11454 subjects of different age-groups there were 4143 men aged 20-60 years who were evaluated for demographic variables, smoking/tobacco use and middle and internal ear diseases. Descriptive statistics and age adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed.

Among the 4143 men, 1739 (42.0%) were smokers or used tobacco. In smokers/tobacco users compared to non-users the age adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for chronic suppurative otitis media were 1.13 (CI 0.96-1.34), acute otitis media 1.16 (CI 0.82-1.64), suppurative otitis media 1.21 (CI 0.79-1.84), otosclerosis 0.97 (CI 0.52-1.33) (p > 0.05) and for overall middle ear diseases was 1.15 (CI 0.99-1.33, p = 0.05). For internal ear diseases the age adjusted odds ratios were for sensorineural hearing loss 1.12 (CI 0.92-1.58), 0.12 (CI 0.42-0.93) for vertigo and tinnitus and overall internal ear diseases were 0.97 (CI 0.77-1.22, p = 0.81). Among men 40-60 years there was a significantly greater risk for both middle ear (OR 1.73, CI 1.29-2.30) and internal ear diseases (OR 1.94, CI 1.24-3.04) (p < 0.001).

Smoking/tobacco use is significantly associated with greater prevalence of middle and internal ear diseases among middle-aged men in India.

Shafey O, Eriksen M, Ross H, Mackay J: The Tobacco Atlas. 2009, Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 3.
Bartecchi CE, MacKenzie TD, Schrier RW: The human costs of tobacco use-1. N Engl J Med. 1994, 330: 907-912. 10.1056/NEJM199403313301307.
Adair-Bischoff CE, Sauve RS, Kimberley B, Brant R: Smoking and middle ear disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996, 114: 837-840. 10.1016/S0194-5998(96)70117-1.
Aligne CA, Stoddard JJ: Tobacco and children. Arch Paediatr Adolesc Med. 1997, 151: 648-653. 10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170440010002.
Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein BE, Wiley TL, Nondahl DM, Tweed TS: Cigarette smoking and hearing loss: the epidemiology of hearing loss study. JAMA. 1998, 279: 1715-1719. 10.1001/jama.279.21.1715.
Starck J, Toppila E, Pyykko I: Smoking as a risk factor in sensory neural hearing loss among workers exposed to occupational noise. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999, 119: 302-305. 10.1080/00016489950181288.
Nakanishi N, Okamoto M, Nakamura K, Suzuki K, Tatara K: Cigarette smoking and risk for hearing impairment: a longitudinal study in Japanese male office workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2000, 42: 1045-1049. 10.1097/00043764-200011000-00001.
Siegelaub AB, Friedman GD, Kedar A, Seltzer CC: Hearing loss in adults. Relation to age, sex, exposure to load noise, and cigarette smoking. Arch Environ Health. 1974, 29: 107-109.
Friedman GD, Siegeland AB, Seltzer CC: Cigarette smoking and exposure to occupational hazards. Am J Epidemiol. 1969, 98: 175-183.
Virokannas H, Anttonen H: Dose-response relationship between smoking and impairment of hearing acuity in workers exposed to noise. Scand Audiol. 1995, 24: 211-216. 10.3109/01050399509047538.
Barone JA, Peters JM, Garabrant DH, Bernstein L, Krebsbach R: Smoking as a risk factor in noise-induced hearing loss. J Occup Med. 1987, 29: 741-745.
Brant LJ, Gordon-Salant S, Pearson JD, Klein LL, Morrell CH, Metter EJ, Fozard JL: Risk factors related to age-associated hearing loss in the speech frequencies. J Am Acad Audiol. 1996, 7: 152-160.
Karlsmose B, Lauritzen T, Engberg M, Parving A: A five-year longitudinal study of hearing in a Danish rural population aged 31-50 years. Br J Audiol. 2000, 24: 47-55.
Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K: Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2008, 9: 667-675. 10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70173-6.
Reddy KS, Gupta PC: Tobacco control in India. 2004, New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Health.
Gaur K, Kasliwal N, Bhandari A, Amisha B, Gupta VP, Gupta R: Changing trends in otorhinolaryngological diseases at a non-government clinic at Jaipur. Ind J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009, 61: 173-178. 10.1007/s12070-009-0061-1.
Adair-Bischoff CE, Sauve RS: Environmental tobacco smoke and middle ear disease in preschool-age children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998, 152: 127-133.
Jha P, Jacob B, Gajalakshmi V, Gupta PC, Dhingra N, Kumar R, Sinha DN, Dikshit RP, Parida DK, Kamadod R, Boreham J, Peto R: For the RGI-CGHR Investigators: A nationally representative case-control study of smoking and death in India. N Engl J Med. 2008, 358: 1137-1147. 10.1056/NEJMsa0707719.
Beaglehole R, Ebrahim S, Reddy S, Voute J, Leeder S: Chronic disease action group. Prevention of chronic diseases: a call to action. Lancet. 2007, 370: 2152-2157. 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61700-0.
Tobacco and otorhinolaryngology: Epic and disaster
O. Laccourreye, A. Werner, H. Laccourreye, P. Bonfils
European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Le tabac et l’otorhinolaryngologie : épopée et tragédie
O. Laccourreye, A. Werner, H. Laccourreye, P. Bonfils
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale
Lifestyle and normal hearing function in Italy and Central Asia: The potential role of coffee
Dragana Vuckovic, Ginevra Biino, Francesco Panu, Mario Pirastu, Paolo Gasparini, Giorgia Girotto
Hearing, Balance and Communication
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in Chilean Shellfish Divers
Marie Astrid Garrido Campos, Benedikt Anselm Hindelang, Denise Siqueira de Carvalho, Ilse Urzúa Finke, Ronald Herrera, Katja Radon
Annals of Global Health
Ménière's disease clinical subtypes in a population from the USA
J Crossley, A Hussaini, H Kim, M Hoa
The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Jinbao Chen, Weisong Zhao, Xuejing Yue, Ping Zhang
Frontiers in Neurology
Health Status of Adults with Hearing Loss in the United States
Jennifer Glassman, Timothy Jordan, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Lori Pakulski, Amy Thompson
Audiology Research
A systematic review of the impact of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes in otology
S Patel, N Wooles, T Martin
The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
Effects of cigarette smoke on Haemophilus influenzae-induced otitis media in a rat model
Sung-Won Choi, Sunmi Choi, Eun-Jin Kang, Hyun Lee, Se-Joon Oh, Il-Woo Lee, Hwan Lee, Soo-Keun Kong
Scientific Reports
Association of shisha smoking with acute otitis media in men: A case-control study
Khalifa Binkhamis, AbdulelahHamad Alsaeed, SultanNasser Alfehaid, RakanJ Almetary, AbdulazizSaeed Alshahrani, AbdulrahmanH Alduhayyim, WaleedSuliman Alanazi
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine
Frequency of diseases presenting in ENT OPD at Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad
Qayyum Shah, Salma Fayyaz
Association between asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic otitis media
Sung Kim, Seok Hong, Dae Yoo, Chanyang Min, Hyo Choi
Scientific Reports
Tubomanometry correlations with patient characteristics and other diagnostic tests of Eustachian tube dysfunction: a cohort study of 432 ears
Heidi Oehlandt, Oskari Lindfors, Saku Sinkkonen
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Secondary to Acute Otitis Media in a High-Risk Patient: A Case Report and Review of Recent Changes to Pneumococcal Immunization Guidelines
Joshua Gregory, Nathaniel Chohrach, Deepa Iyengar
Effect of smoking on status of hearing: A cross-sectional study
Gautam Nandita, KK Shivalingesh, Kushwaha Anushtha, Singh Varnika, Singh Siddhant, Kumar Shashank
Archives of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
Noise exposure and hearing loss among tractor drivers in India
K.N. Dewangan, Thaneswer Patel, Lalremruata
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top