RESEARCH PAPER
The opinions of adults about the ban on cigarette sales to minors
H. Ozcebe 1
,  
N. Bilir 1
,  
E. Inal 2  
,  
H. Unlu 1
,  
E. Beser 3
,  
G. Can 4
,  
P. Okyay 3
,  
D. Arslantas 5
,  
F. Abacigil 3
,  
V. Senol 6
,  
E. Turhan 7
,  
S. Gokgoz 8
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Public Health, University of Hacettepe, Ankara, Turkey
2
Yalova Vocational High School, University of Yalova, Yalova, Turkey
3
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Adnan Menderes, Aydın, Turkey
4
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Karadeniz Teknik, Trabzon, Turkey
5
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Osman Gazi, Eskişehir, Turkey
6
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Erciyes, Kayseri, Turkey
7
Provincial Directorate of Public Health, İzmir, Turkey
8
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kirklareli, Kırklareli, Turkey
9
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ataturk, Erzurum, Turkey
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
E. Inal   

Yalova Vocational High School, University of Yalova, Yalova, Turkey
Publish date: 2016-12-05
 
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2016;14(December):38
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Selling of tobacco products to minors has been banned since 1996 by the tobacco control law in Turkey. However, it is also important for the public to support practices that prevent the access of tobacco products to minors. In addition, every individual has the responsibility of carrying out society based programs that restrict access to tobacco products especially to children and the youths. Social sensitivity is considered an important factor in the prevention of tobacco use. This study aims to learn about the opinions and attitudes of adults with regards to minors access to tobacco products.

Methods:
The study was a descriptive study conducted in nine city centers in Turkey. The total number of participants reached was 3241. The questionnaire was developed by the research team and consisted of 22 questions concerning knowledge and behaviors of adults on restriction of tobacco sales to minors and their observations with regards tobacco sales to minors. Data was collected through face to face interview. Pearson chi-square test was used for the bivariate analysis whereas logistic regression was investigate the relationship between “the participant’s response against tobacco sales to minors” and the following explanatory variables; “age”, “educational status”, “income level”, “working status”, “minors access to cigarettes”, “smoking ratio in high school” and “sales of tobacco to minors”.

Results:
More than half of the participants (60.5%) belonged to the age group 25–44 years, 61.3% graduated from high school or university. Most of the participants were smoker (39.2%) or ex-smoker (19.1%), and 41.7% of the participants was non-smoker. A greater proportion of the participants (76.2%) believed that smoking prevalence was greater than 40% among high school students. One in four (27.8%) adults did not know that tobacco control law bans sell of tobacco products to minors in Turkey. More than half of the participants (57.1%) ever witnessed tobacco sales to minors and 63.6% of them did not act when confronted with the event. Almost all (96.8%) of the respondents thought that access of minors to tobacco products was not difficult. The results of logistic regression of participant’s response against tobacco sales to minor and related factors for current smokers showed that respondents who believed smoking ratio in high school was 4–5 adolescent out of 10 (aOR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.09–2.34) were more likely to give a warning or informing the police or other people as compared to respondents whose perception on the smoking ratio among high school students was 6–7 adolescents out of 10. The results of logistic regression of non-smokers’ response against tobacco sales to minor were who are from higher educational level, higher economic status, working status and who believed smoking ratio in high school was 4–5 adolescent out of 10 and 2–3 adolescent out of 10 were more likely to give a warning or informing the police or other people as compared to the others.

Conclusions:
Although laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco products to the under age group is very important with regards to accessibility of minors to tobacco products, most of the study participants believed that minors can still easily access tobacco products, and more than half of the participants did not act when confronted with the event. The education, information and monitoring program most especially as it concerns salesman, should be reviewed and strengthened to obey the rules on sales of tobacco products to minors. Education program should be carried out to increase the knowledge and awareness of the community for sale of tobacco to minors. Social sensitivity is important for the prevention of tobacco use and every individual have a responsibility in carrying out this society based program, most especially as it related to prevention of tobacco usage among children and youths.

 
REFERENCES (29)
1.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic: The MPOWER package. http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpo.... Accessed 03 Sept 2015.
 
2.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva: WHO; 2003.
 
3.
Surgeon General’s Report. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/dat.... Accessed 03 Sept 2015.
 
4.
Law No. 5261, For ratification of the WHO framework convention on tobacco control. T.C. Official Gazette, 30 November 2004:25656. http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/.... Accessed 03 Sept 2015.
 
5.
Forster JL, Murray DM, Wolfson M, et al. The effects of community policies to reduce youth access to tobacco. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:1193–8.
 
6.
Jason LA, Ji PY, Anes MD, et al. Active enforcement of cigarette control laws in the prevention of cigarette sales to minors. JAMA. 1991;266(3):159–61.
 
7.
Forester JL, et al. The Effects of Community Policies to Reduce Youth Access to Tobacco. Am J Pub Health. 1998;88:1193. 1197.
 
8.
Lantz MP, Jacobson DP, Warner EK, Wasserman J, Pollack AH, Berson J, Ahlstrom A. Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tob Control. 2000;9:47–63.
 
9.
Anon. Tobacco use and usual source of cigarettes among high school students—United States, 1995. MMWR. 1996;45:413–8.
 
10.
Altman DG, Wheelis AY, McFarlane M, et al. The relationship between tobacco access and use among adolescents:a four community study. SocSci Med. 1999;48:759–75.
 
11.
Anon. Accessibility of tobacco products to youths ages 12–17 years—United States, 1989 and 1993. MMWR. 1996;45:125–30.
 
12.
Winickoff JP, McMillen R, Tanski S, Wilson K, Gottlieb M, Crane R. Public support for raising the age of sale for tobacco to 21 in the United States. Tob Control. 2015; tobaccocontrol-2014-052126Published Online First: 20 February 2015. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052126.
 
13.
Egbe OC, Petersen I, Weitz MA, Asante OK. An exploratory study of the socio-cultural risk influences for cigarette smoking among Southern Nigerian youth. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1204. Page 2 of 9. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1....
 
14.
Louis Harris and associates. The prostep report on smoking and the family. New York: Louis Harris and Associates Inc; 1992.
 
15.
U.S. Department of Health and human services. Elders JM, editors. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washıngton D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.
 
16.
SE Marcus, SL Emont, RD Corcoran, GA Giovino, JP Pierce, MN Waller, RM Davis. Public attitudes about cigarette smoking: results from the 1990 Smoking Activity Volunteer Executed Survey. Public Health Rep. 1994;109(1):125–34.
 
17.
California department of health services. Tobacco use in California, 1990: a preliminary report documenting the decline of tobacco use. Sacremento: California department of health services; 1991.
 
18.
Centers for Disease Control. Public attitudes regarding limits on public smoking and regulation of tobacco sales and advertising-10 U.S. communities, 1989. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991;40(21):344–5. 351-3.
 
19.
Law No. 4207, Law on prevention and control of hazards of tobacco products. Article. 4/8, Accepted: 07.11.1996. Available: http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Meti....
 
20.
WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tobacco Control in Prcatice Article 8: Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke. Copenhagen: WHO; 2012.
 
21.
Law No. 5727, BillAmendingtheLaw on Prevention of Hazards of TobaccoProducts. Date of Enactment: 3/1/2008. Available: http://mevzuat.meb.gov.tr/html.... Accessed on 03 Sept 2015.
 
22.
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2012. http://www.who.int/tobacco/sur.... Accessed Sept 03, 2015.
 
23.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO global report on trends in tobacco smoking 2000–2025. http://www.who.int/tobacco/pub.... Accessed 03 Sept 2015.
 
24.
World Health Organization. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Guidelines for Implementation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
 
25.
Ergüder T, Soydal T, Uğurlu M, Çakır B, Warren CW. Tobacco use among youth and related characteristics, Turkey. Soz Preventive Med. 2006;51:91–8.
 
26.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people. A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1994. (US Government Printing Office Publication No S/N 017-001-00491-0.). Reprinted with corrections, July 1994.
 
27.
Centers for Disease Control. Accessibility of cigarettes to youths aged 12–17 years-United States, 1989. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1992;41(27):485–8.
 
28.
Stead LF, Lancaster T. Interventions for preventing tobacco sales to minors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001497. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001497.pub2.
 
29.
Shari Kessel Schneider, Stephen L Buka, Kim Dash, Jonathan P Winickoff, Lydia O’Donnell. Brief report Community reductions in youth smoking after raising the minimum tobacco sales age to 21. Tob Control. 2015; Published Online First: 12 June 2015. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052207.
 
 
CITATIONS (1):
1.
Urban and Rural Adolescents’ Points-of-Access for Alcohol and Tobacco
Ronald D. Williams, Jeff M. Housman, Jennifer L. Evans, James M. Bishop, Veronica Ray
Journal of Community Health
 
eISSN:1617-9625