Determinants of resilience to cigarette smoking among young Australians at risk: an exploratory study
More details
Hide details
School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of South Australia, City East Campus, Adelaide, Australia
Antonina A Mikocka-Walus   

School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Level 4, Hughes Building, Adelaide 5005, SA, Australia
Publish date: 2016-07-08
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2010;8(July):7
Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking.

Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE) Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0), analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test.

Twenty five (27%) out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p < .05). A relationship between daily smoking and depression, anxiety and stress was also found (p < .05). When both mothers and fathers disapproved of their children smoking, it had a greater influence on females not smoking, compared with males. The majority of students chose 'health and fitness' as a reason for not smoking. Students in the Dance course tended to not smoke.

The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative).

1. Ridolpho B, Stevenson C: The quantification of drug-caused mortality and morbidity in Australia, 1998. Drug Statistics Series. No. 7, Cat. No. PHE 29. 2001, Canberra: AIHW.
2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: 2004 National drug strategy household survey: First results. Drug Statistics Series No. 13 Cat. no. PHE 57, ABS. 2005, Canberra: AIHW.
3. Rutter M: Resilience in the face of adversity: protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1985, 147: 598-611. 10.1192/bjp.147.6.598.
4. Antonovsky A: Health, stress, and coping. 1979, London: Jossey-Bass.
5. Erikson M, Lindstrom B: Validity of Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale: A systemic review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2005, 59: 460-466. 10.1136/jech.2003.018085.
6. Luthar SS, Zigler E: Vulnerability and competence: a review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1991, 61: 6-22. 10.1037/h0079218.
7. Martin RA, Puhlik-Doris P, Larsen G, Gray J, Weir K: Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor styles questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality. 2003, 37: 48-75. 10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00534-2.
8. Overholser JC: Sense of humor when coping with life stress. Personality and Individual Differences. 1992, 13: 799-804. 10.1016/0191-8869(92)90053-R.
9. Southwick SM, Vythilingam M, Charney DS: The Psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: Implications for prevention and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2005, 1: 255-291. 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143948.
10. Thorson JA, Powell FC: Development and validation of a multidimensional sense of humor scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1993, 49: 13-23. 10.1002/1097-4679(199301)49:1<13::AID-JCLP2270490103>3.0.CO;2-S.
11. Wooten P: Humor: An antidote for stress. Holistic Nursing Practice. 1996, 10: 49-56.
12. Pederson LL, Koval JJ, O'Connor K: Are psychosocial factors related to smoking grade-6 students?. Addictive Behaviors. 1997, 22 (2): 169-181. 10.1016/S0306-4603(96)00014-7.
13. Taylor A, Dal Grande E, Parsons J: Mental Health Status of South Australians. 1997, Adelaide: SA Health Commission.
14. Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy: National Tobacco Strategy, 2004-2009: The Strategy. 2004, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
15. Johnson JG, Cohen P, Pine DS, Klein DF, Kasen S, Brook JS: Association between cigarette smoking and anxiety disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2000, 284: 2348-2351. 10.1001/jama.284.18.2348.
16. Cuijpers P, Smit F, Have M, Graaf R: Smoking is associated with first-ever incidence of mental disorders: A prospective population-based study. Addiction. 2001, 102: 1303-1309. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01885.x.
17. Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M: Alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use among Australians: A comparison of their associations with other drug use and use disorders, affective and anxiety disorders, and psychosis. Addiction. 2001, 96: 1603-1614. 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2001.961116037.x.
18. Antonovsky A: The structure and properties of the sense of coherence scale. Social Science & Medicine. 1993, 36: 725-33.
19. Byrne DG, Byrne AE, Reinhart MI: Personality, stress, and the decision to commence cigarette smoking in adolescence. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1995, 39: 53-62. 10.1016/0022-3999(94)00074-F.
20. Davidson RJ, Jackson DC, Kalin NH: Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin. 2000, 126: 890-909. 10.1037/0033-2909.126.6.890.
21. Fergus S, Zimmerman MA: Adolescent resilience: A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health. 2005, 26: 399-419. 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144357.
22. Krosnick JA, Judd CM: Changes in social influence at adolescence: Who induces cigarette smoking?. Developmental Psychology. 1982, 18: 359-368. 10.1037/0012-1649.18.3.359.
23. Kobus K: Peers and adolescent smoking. Addiction. 2003, 98: 37-55. 10.1046/j.1360-0443.98.s1.4.x.
24. Monti S, Stone G: Peer Health Promotion. 2003, NSW: Northern Beaches College TAFE.
25. Hickling J, Miller C: Progress in tobacco control in South Australia: Summary of key findings from the 2004 health omnibus survey. 2005, Adelaide, Australia: Tobacco Control Research and Evaluation Program.
26. Centrelink: A guide to Centrelink concession cards [Brochure]. Cat. No. C0153.0910. 2010, Canberra: Australian Government.
27. Antonovsky A: Unravelling the mystery of health. 1987, London: Jossey-Bass.
28. Sammallahti PR, Holi MM, Komulainen EJ, Aalberg VA: Comparing two self- report measures of coping: The sense of coherence scale and the defense style questionnaire. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1996, 52: 517-524. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199609)52:5<517::AID-JCLP4>3.0.CO;2-K.
29. Frydenberg E, Lewis R: Manual: Coping scale for adults. 1996, Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.
30. Holahan CJ, Moos RH: Personal and contextual determinants of coping strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987, 52: 946-955. 10.1037/0022-3514.52.5.946.
31. Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF: Manual for the depression, anxiety stress scales. 1995, Sydney: Psychology Foundation, 2.
32. Antony MM, Bieling PJ, Cox BJ, Enns MW, Swinson RP: Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment. 1998, 10: 176-181. 10.1037/1040-3590.10.2.176.
33. Winefield HR, Winefield AH, Tiggeman M: Social support and psychological well-being in young adults: The Multi-Dimensional Support Scale. Journal of Personality and Assessment. 1992, 58: 198-210. 10.1207/s15327752jpa5801_17.
34. Balfour DJK: The psychopharmacology of tobacco dependence. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Monograph Series. 2003, 18: 12-21.
35. O'Callaghan FV: Smoking among a sample of Australian teenagers: Perceptions of social and health consequences. South Pacific Journal of Psychology. 2003, 14: 8-15.
36. Braverman MT: Research on resilience and its implications for tobacco prevention. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 1999, 1: 67-72.
37. Murphy JM, Horton NJ, Monson RR, Laird NM, Sobol AM, Leighton AH: Cigarette smoking in relation to depression: Historical trends from the Stirling county study. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003, 160: 1663-1669. 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.1663.
38. West P, Sweeting H, Ecob R: Family and friends' influences on the uptake of regular smoking from mid-adolescence to early adulthood. Addiction. 1999, 94: 397-1412. 10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.949139711.x.
39. Seligman MEP, Csikszentmihalyi M: Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist. 2000, 55: 5-14. 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5.
40. Seligman MEP: Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realise your potential for lasting fulfilment. 2002, Sydney: Random House.
41. Murray DM, O'Connell CM, Schmidt LA, Perry CL: The validity of smoking self-reports by adolescents: A re-examination of the bogus pipeline procedure. Addictive Behaviors. 1987, 12: 7-15. 10.1016/0306-4603(87)90003-7.
1. Anxiety, depression and methods of stress coping in patients with nicotine dependence syndrome
Tadeusz Pietras, Andrzej Witusik, Michał Panek, Janusz Szemraj, Paweł Górski
Medical Science Monitor
2. Mediating Effect of Internet Addiction on the Association between Resilience and Depression among Korean University Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Kwok Kei Mak, Jaeseung Jeong, Hye-Kyung Lee, Kounseok Lee
Psychiatry Investigation
3. Prevalence, Correlates and Perceptions Toward Cigarette Smoking Among Male and Female In-School Adolescents (Aged 11–18 years) in South Africa: Results from the 2008 GYTS Study
Karl Peltzer
Journal of Psychology in Africa