* Contributed equally + Co-first authors
China has the largest number of smokers in the world. The great majority of China’s smokers desire to quit smoking (QS); however, the success rate of self-quitting is low. This study investigated the effects of smoking cessation (SC) clinics in a cancer hospital in Hunan province and determined the influencing factors of successful SC.

Smokers were recruited to QS by healthcare workers in the SC clinic from February 2015 to February 2019. SC counseling was provided and telephone follow-up was conducted at 1 week, and at 1, 3 and 6 months. Patients who continued SC during the follow-up period were considered to have QS.

Of the 344 patients included in this study, 16.3% QS at one week, 26.5% at one month, 27.6% at three months, and 31.7% at six months. Age ≥60 years, previous SC attempts, immediate quit dates, and telephone follow-up times (3–4 calls) were predictive factors for smokers to SC at six months.

Age, previous attempts to QS, immediate quit dates and telephone follow-up times were independent predictors of SC success at six months. SC clinics and frequent telephone follow-up improve the success rate of SC, especially in patients who have previously tried to QS or in those who set immediate quit dates.

We thank R. H. Y. of the School of Xiangya Public Health, Central South University who guided the data analysis. We are grateful to Editage ( for English language editing.
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
This research was funded by Hunan Provincial Bureau of Science and Technology (Grants: 2021ZK4069, 2021ZK4076, 2021ZK4078), Hunan Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Fund (Grant: 20WTC08) and the Changsha Science and Technology Bureau in China (Grant: kq1901085).
Ethical approval (Approval number: KYJJ 094; March 1, 2019) was obtained from the ethics committee of the Hunan Cancer Hospital in Hunan Province, China. This study was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients provided oral informed consent.
The data supporting this research are available from the authors on reasonable request.
Conceptualization JX, RZ, YZ and YL; methodology XC; software JX and RZ; validation, formal analysis, investigation, resources, all authors; data curation JC, LZ, RZ, LZ and XY; writing/original draft preparation JX; writing/review and editing RZ, YZ and YL; visualization, supervision WW, OC and YZ; project administration, funding acquisition, YL, OC and YZ. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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