Perceptions of hookah smoking harmfulness: predictors and characteristics among current hookah users
More details
Hide details
Applied Physics Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Physics Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
Family & Preventive Medicine Department, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA
Submission date: 2009-09-23
Acceptance date: 2009-12-18
Publication date: 2009-12-18
Corresponding author
Khaled Aljarrah   

Applied Physics Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2009;5(December):16
Tobacco cigarette smoking a well-known cause of cancer and other diseases. Hookah smoking is another form of tobacco use that has rapidly spread in the United State and Europe. This study assessed beliefs about the harmfulness of smoking hookah.

We surveyed hookah users in all cafes that provided hookah to its customers in downtown San Diego, California and nearby areas. A total of 235 hookah users participated in this study.

Average age of study participants was 22 years, 57% were males, and 72% were not cigarette smokers. Whites were more likely to use hookah than the other ethnic groups (33%), older hookah users (26-35 years) were mostly males, and mint flavor of hookah tobacco was the most popular among a wide variety of flavors (23%). There was no significant difference in gender in relation to the wrong perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes, but those of Asian ethnicity were much less likely than other ethnic groups to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. More frequent users of hookah were more likely to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The majority of hookah users (58.3%) believe hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking.

Compared to cigarettes, there appears to be a lack of knowledge about the harmfulness of smoking hookah among users regardless of their demographic background. Education about the harmfulness of smoking hookah and policies to limit its use should be implemented to prevent the spread of this new form of tobacco use.

Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P: Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA: A cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2005, 55 (2): 74-108. 10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74.
Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Burns D, Jemal A, Shanks TG, Calle EE: Lung cancer death rates in lifelong nonsmokers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2006, 98 (10): 691-699.
Ries L, Eisner M, Kosary C: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2001. 2004.
CDC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. 2004.
CDC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nationals Leading Cause of Death. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003.
CDC: Cigarette smoking-attributable morbidity-United States. MMWR Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report, 5 842-844. 2000.
Videtic GM, Stitt LW, Dar AR, Kocha WI, Tomiak AT, Truong PT, Vincent MD, Yu EW: Continued cigarette smoking by patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer is associated with decreased survival. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2003, 21 (8): 1544-1549. 10.1200/JCO.2003.10.089.
Hecht SS: Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer. 2003, 3 (10): 733-744. 10.1038/nrc1190.
Sopori M: Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2002, 2 (5): 372-377. 10.1038/nri803.
Antika: The Turkish Journal of Collectable Art. 1986, [cited July 21 2008], 11.
Maziak W, Rastam S, Eissenberg T, Asfar T, Hammal F, Bachir ME, Fouad MF, Ward KD: Gender and smoking status-based analysis of views regarding waterpipe and cigarette smoking in Aleppo, Syria. Preventive Medicine. 2004, 38 (4): 479-484. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.11.021.
Asfar T, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Maziak W: Comparison of patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe between beginning and established smokers. BMC Public Health. 2005, 5: 1-9. 10.1186/1471-2458-5-19.
Berestein L: Healthy or not; the Hooka Habit is Hot. Time. 2003.
McNicoll T: Pipe smoking in cafes; Health hazards or cultural links. Newsweek International. 2002.
WHO: World Health Organization. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Health Effects, Research Needs and Recommended Actions by Regulators. Geneva, Switzerland. 2005.
Maziak W, Ward KD, Eissenberg T: Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007, CD005549-4.
Smith-Simone S, Maziak W, Ward KD, Eissenberg T: Waterpipe tobacco smoking: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008, 10 (2): 393-398. 10.1080/14622200701825023.
Ward KD, Weg Vander MW, Relyea G, Debon M, Klesges RC: Waterpipe smoking among American military recruits. Preventive Medicine. 2006, 43 (2): 92-97. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.03.010.
Shihadeh A, Azar S, Antonios C, Haddad A: Towards a topographical model of narghile water-pipe cafe smoking: a pilot study in a high socioeconomic status neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 2004, 79 (1): 75-82. 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.06.005.
Primack BA, Sidani J, Agarwal AA, Shadel WG, Donny EC, Eissenberg TE: Prevalence of and associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking among U.S. university students. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2008, 36 (1): 81-86. 10.1007/s12160-008-9047-6.
Jackson D, Aveyard P: Waterpipe smoking in students: prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. Evidence from one British university. BMC Public Health. 2008, 8: 174-10.1186/1471-2458-8-174.
Kiter G, Ucan ES, Ceylan E, Kilinc O: Water-pipe smoking and pulmonary functions. Respiratory Medicine. 2000, 94 (9): 891-894. 10.1053/rmed.2000.0859.
Kandela P: Nargile smoking keeps Arabs in Wonderland. Lancet. 2000, 356 (9236): 1175-10.1016/S0140-6736(05)72871-3.
Shihadeh A: Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2003, 41 (1): 143-152. 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00220-X.
Shihadeh A, Saleh R: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, "tar", and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005, 43 (5): 655-661. 10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.013.
Maziak W, Eissenberg T, Rastam S, Hammal F, Asfar T, Bachir ME, Fouad MF, Ward KD: Beliefs and attitudes related to narghile (waterpipe) smoking among university students in Syria. Annals of Epidemiology. 2004, 14 (9): 646-654. 10.1016/j.annepidem.2003.11.003.
Maziak W, Rastam S, Ibrahim I, Ward KD, Eissenberg T: Waterpipe-associated particulate matter emissions. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008, 10 (3): 519-523. 10.1080/14622200801901989.
Steentoft J, Wittendorf J, Andersen JR: Tuberculosis and water pipes as source of infection. Ugeskrift for laeger. 2006, 168 (9): 904-907.
Al-Kubati M, Al-Kubati AS, al'Absi M, Fiser B: The short-term effect of water-pipe smoking on the baroreflex control of heart rate in normotensives. Autonomic Neuroscience. 2006, 126-127: 146-149. 10.1016/j.autneu.2006.03.007.
Shihadeh A, Antonios C, Azar S: A portable, low-resistance puff topography instrument for pulsating, high-flow smoking devices. Behavior Research Methods. 2005, 37 (1): 186-191.
Smith SY, Curbow B, Stillman FA: Harm perception of nicotine products in college freshmen. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2007, 9 (9): 977-982. 10.1080/14622200701540796.
Eissenberg T, Ward KD, Smith-Simone S, Maziak W: Waterpipe tobacco smoking on a U.S. College campus: prevalence and correlates. The Journal of Adolescent Health. 2008, 42 (5): 526-529. 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.10.004.
Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Gray JN, Srinivas V, Wilson N, Maziak W: Characteristics of U.S. waterpipe users: a preliminary report. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2007, 9 (12): 1339-1346. 10.1080/14622200701705019.
Al-Delaimy W, White M, Gilmer T, Zhu S-H, Pierce J:The California Tobacco Survey Control Program: Can we maintain the progress? Results from the California Tobacco Survey, 1990-2005. 2008, La Jolla, CA: University of California, San Diego.
Roskin J, Aveyard P: Canadian and English students' beliefs about waterpipe smoking: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2009, 9 (10): 1-7.
Tamim H, Al-Sahab B, Akkary G, Ghanem M, Tamim N, El Roueiheb Z, Kanj M, Afifi R: Cigarette and nargileh smoking practices among school students in Beirut, Lebanon. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2007, 31 (1): 56-63.
WHO:World Health Organization. Tobacco Control Country Profiles. 2003, [
Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations
Irene M. Gathuru, Ralph E. Tarter, Michele Klein-Fedyshin
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
The Influence of Drinking Motives on Hookah use Frequency Among Young Multi-Substance Users
Dawn W. Foster, Maya R. Greene, Nicholas P. Allan, Pascal Geldsetzer
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
A comparison of cigarette- and hookah-related videos on YouTube
Mary V Carroll, Ariel Shensa, Brian A Primack
Tobacco Control
Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas
Liqa Athamneh, Sujit S. Sansgiry, E. James Essien, Susan Abughosh
Journal of Addiction
Risk Factors Associated With Hookah Use
Patricia A. Cavazos-Rehg, Melissa J. Krauss, Yoonsang Kim, Sherry L. Emery
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Young adult waterpipe tobacco users’ perceived addictiveness of waterpipe tobacco
Darren Mays, Kenneth Tercyak, Kathryn Rehberg, Mary-Kate Crane, Isaac Lipkus
Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students
E. Nuzzo, A. Shensa, K. H. Kim, M. J. Fine, T. E. Barnett, R. Cook, B. A. Primack
Health Education Research
Cancer risk in waterpipe smokers: a meta-analysis
Ravinder Mamtani, Sohaila Cheema, Javaid Sheikh, Ahmad Al Mulla, Albert Lowenfels, Patrick Maisonneuve
International Journal of Public Health
Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences
U. Wollina
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
Waterpipe Smoking Among U.S. University Students
B. A. Primack, A. Shensa, K. H. Kim, M. V. Carroll, M. T. Hoban, E. V. Leino, T. Eissenberg, K. H. Dachille, M. J. Fine
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
U.S. Hookah Tobacco Smoking Establishments Advertised on the Internet
Brian A. Primack, Kristen R. Rice, Ariel Shensa, Mary V. Carroll, Erica J. DePenna, Rima Nakkash, Tracey E. Barnett
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
To what extent should waterpipe tobacco smoking become a public health priority?
Mohammed Jawad, Andy McEwen, Ann McNeill, Lion Shahab
Reproductive Toxicity of Tobacco Shisha Smoking on Semen Parameters and Hormones Levels among Adult Egyptian Men
Irene A. Fawzy, Nashwa N. Kamal, Ahlam M. Abdulla
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology
Prevalence of Water Pipe Use and Its Correlates in Iranian Women of Reproductive Age in Tehran: A Population-Based Study
Azam Baheiraei, Mojgan Mirghafourvand, Saharnaz Nedjat, Eesa Mohammadi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi
Medical Principles and Practice
Hookah and Cigarette Smoking Among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction And Health Promotion Efforts
Brittni D. Jones, Renee M. Cunningham-Williams
Journal of American College Health
Prevalence of Hookah Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2012 - 2013
Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Hojjat Zeraati, Saeid Safiri, Akbar Fotouhi
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: Use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use
Adrienne J. Heinz, Grace E. Giedgowd, Natania A. Crane, Jennifer C. Veilleux, Megan Conrad, Ashley R. Braun, Natalia A. Olejarska, Jon D. Kassel
Addictive Behaviors
Physical, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of Prenatal Tobacco and Postnatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure
Sherry Zhou, David G. Rosenthal, Scott Sherman, Judith Zelikoff, Terry Gordon, Michael Weitzman
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors
Rathi Ramji, Judy Arnetz, Maria Nilsson, Hikmet Jamil, Fredrik Norström, Wasim Maziak, Ywonne Wiklund, Bengt Arnetz
BMC Research Notes
Acute effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking: A double-blind, placebo-control study
Melissa D. Blank, Caroline O. Cobb, Barbara Kilgalen, Janet Austin, Michael F. Weaver, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Water-pipe tobacco epidemic in tobacco naive communities: Experience from Ethiopia*
Molla Gedefaw, Amanuel Eshete, Mekonnen Aychiluhem, Telake Azale
Open Journal of Epidemiology
Promotion of waterpipe tobacco use, its variants and accessories in young adult newspapers: a content analysis of message portrayal
K. L. Sterling, C. S. Fryer, B. Majeed, M. M. Duong
Health Education Research
A descriptive study of the perceptions and behaviors of waterpipe use by university students in the Western Cape, South Africa
Karin E Daniels, Nicolette V Roman
Tobacco Induced Diseases
How Health Risks Are Pinpointed (or Not) on Social Media: The Portrayal of Waterpipe Smoking on Pinterest
Jeanine Guidry, Yan Jin, Linda Haddad, Yuan Zhang, Joshua Smith
Health Communication
An Observational Study of Group Waterpipe Use in a Natural Environment
M. D. Blank, K. W. Brown, R. J. Goodman, T. Eissenberg
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
The association between indoor smoke-free home rules and the use of cigar and smokeless tobacco: A longitudinal study
Xiao Zhang
Addictive Behaviors
Global Teens and Tobacco: A Review of the Globalization of the Tobacco Epidemic
Bethany Hipple, Harry Lando, Jonathan Klein, Jonathan Winickoff
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Hookah Smoking: Characteristics, Behavior and Perceptions of Youth Smokers in Pune, India
Pradnya V. Kakodkar, Shruti S. Bansal
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Factors Associated With Perceptions of Hookah Addictiveness and Harmfulness Among Young Adults
Devon Noonan, Megan E. Patrick
Substance Abuse
Nicotine exposure induces bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ROS mediated autophagy-impairment
Manish Bodas, Colin Van Westphal, Rhett Carpenter-Thompson, Dillip K. Mohanty, Neeraj Vij
Free Radical Biology and Medicine
Effects of hookah smoking on indoor air quality in homes
Michael Weitzman, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Fatma Bali, M J Ruzmyn Vilcassim, Shashank Gandhi, Richard Peltier, Arthur Nadas, Scott Sherman, Lily Lee, Zhang Hong, Jenni Shearston, Su Hyun Park, Terry Gordon
Tobacco Control
Characteristics, reasons, behavior and knowledge towards waterpipe smoking in Saudi Arabia
Elluru Venkatesh, Mohammad Yousef Al Jemal, Abdullah Saleh Al Samani
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
The LWDS-10J: Reliability and Validity of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale Among University Students in Jordan
B. A. Primack, O. F. Khabour, K. H. Alzoubi, G. E. Switzer, A. Shensa, M. V. Carroll, M. Azab, T. Eissenberg
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Shisha (waterpipe) smoking initiation among youth in Malaysia and global perspective: a scoping review (2006–2015)
S.K. Singh, L. Enzhong, D.D. Reidpath, P. Allotey
Public Health
Risk Factors for Hookah Smoking Among Arabs and Chaldeans
Hikmet Jamil, Sanabil G. Geeso, Bengt B. Arnetz, Judith E. Arnetz
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Comparison of Puff Topography, Toxicant Exposure, and Subjective Effects in Low- and High-Frequency Waterpipe Users: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Control Study
C. O. Cobb, M. D. Blank, A. Morlett, A. Shihadeh, E. Jaroudi, N. Karaoghlanian, B. Kilgalen, J. Austin, M. F. Weaver, T. Eissenberg
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Attitudes and Practices of Hookah Smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area
Bilaal Ahmed, Peyton Jacob, Faith Allen, Neal Benowitz
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Association between tobacco waterpipe smoking and head and neck conditions
Teja Munshi, Carolyn J. Heckman, Susan Darlow
The Journal of the American Dental Association
Subgrouping High School Students for Substance Abuse–Related Behaviors: A Latent Class Analysis
Fariba Khayyati, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Hamid Allahverdipour, Mohammad AsghariJafarabadi, Kamiar Kouzekanani
American Journal of Men's Health
Use of a Water Pipe Is Not an Alternative to Other Tobacco or Substance Use Among Adolescents: Results From a National Survey in Sweden
Maria Rosaria Galanti, Maissa Al-Adhami
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Opportunities for Policy Interventions to Reduce Youth Hookah Smoking in the United States
Daniel S. Morris, Steven C. Fiala, Rebecca Pawlak
Preventing Chronic Disease
Beyond cigarette smoking: smoke-free home rules and use of alternative tobacco products
Xiao Zhang, Ana P Martinez-Donate, Daphne Kuo, Megan Piper
Perspectives in Public Health
Analysis of State-Specific Prevalence, Regional Differences, and Correlates of Hookah Use in U.S. Adults, 2012–2013
Su Hyun Park, Dustin T. Duncan, Omar El Shahawy, Jenni A. Shearston, Lily Lee, Kosuke Tamura, Scott E. Sherman, Michael Weitzman
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use
Amy M. Cohn, Sarah J. Ehlke, Caroline O. Cobb, Eric K. Soule
Addictive Behaviors
Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective
Zahraa Rahal, Shaza El Nemr, Ansam Sinjab, Hassan Chami, Arafat Tfayli, Humam Kadara
Frontiers in Oncology
Harmful effects of shisha: literature review
Hafiz Aslam, Shafaq Saleem, Sidra German, Wardah Qureshi
International Archives of Medicine
What Online Communities Can Tell Us About Electronic Cigarettes and Hookah Use: A Study Using Text Mining and Visualization Techniques
Annie T Chen, Shu-Hong Zhu, Mike Conway
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Review of alternative practices to cigarette smoking and nicotine replacement therapy: how safe are they?
OB Omole, GA Ogunbanjo, OA Ayo-Yusuf
South African Family Practice
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Inhaled Toxicants from Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoking
Brian A. Primack, Mary V. Carroll, Patricia M. Weiss, Alan L. Shihadeh, Ariel Shensa, Steven T. Farley, Michael J. Fine, Thomas Eissenberg, Smita Nayak
Public Health Reports
Pattern of Shisha and Cigarette Smoking in the General Population in Malaysia
Redhwan A. Al-Naggar, Yuri V. Bobryshev, Shirin Anil
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Correlates of Hookah Use and Predictors of Hookah Trial in U.S. Young Adults
Andrea C. Villanti, Caroline O. Cobb, Amy M. Cohn, Valerie F. Williams, Jessica M. Rath
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Examining Hookah Smoking Among a Cohort of Adolescent Ever Smokers
K. L. Sterling, R. Mermelstein
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Flavored Tobacco Products in the United States: A Systematic Review Assessing Use and Attitudes
Shari P. Feirman, Diana Lock, Joanna E. Cohen, David R. Holtgrave, Tianjing Li
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Cigarette Smoking: A Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure and Subjective Effects
C. O. Cobb, A. Shihadeh, M. F. Weaver, T. Eissenberg
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Correlates of Hookah Pipe Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness Among U.S. Adults
Kahee A. Mohammed, Christian J. Geneus, Simon Yadgir, Divya S. Subramaniam, Thomas E. Burroughs
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Características do uso de produtos derivados do tabaco entre universitários do curso de Odontologia em uma Universidade de Curitiba
Naiara BECKERT, Simone MOYSÉS, Regina CRUZ, Laísa GUTOSKI, Isabel SCARINCI
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Determinants of Hookah Use among High School Students
J. R. Smith, T. E. Novotny, S. D. Edland, C. R. Hofstetter, S. P. Lindsay, W. K. Al-Delaimy
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Lifetime cumulative exposure to waterpipe smoking is associated with coronary artery disease
Abla M. Sibai, Rania A. Tohme, Mohamad M. Almedawar, Taha Itani, Sara I. Yassine, Eden A. Nohra, Hussain A. Isma'eel
Reigniting Tobacco Ritual: Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Establishment Culture in the United States
M. V. Carroll, J. Chang, J. E. Sidani, T. E. Barnett, E. Soule, E. Balbach, B. A. Primack
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Do Household Smoking Behaviors Constitute a Risk Factor for Hookah Use?
H. Jamil, J. Janisse, D. Elsouhag, M. Fakhouri, J. E. Arnetz, B. B. Arnetz
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Hookah Use Among U.S. College Students: Results From the National College Health Assessment II
T. Jarrett, J. Blosnich, C. Tworek, K. Horn
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis: Table 1.
Reem Waziry, Mohammed Jawad, Rami A. Ballout, Mohammad Al Akel, Elie A Akl
International Journal of Epidemiology
Sustained Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Trends Over Time
Brian A. Primack, Peter Freedman-Doan, Jaime E. Sidani, Daniel Rosen, Ariel Shensa, A. Everette James, John Wallace
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Hookah, is it really harmless?
Ruben Blachman-Braun, Raquel Lira Del Mazo-Rodríguez, Gustavo López-Sámano, Ivette Buendía-Roldán
Respiratory Medicine
Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia
Li Wong, Haridah Alias, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, Sima Aghazadeh, Victor Hoe
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Women and Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Allure or Offensiveness
Joanna Khalil, Rima Afifi, Fouad M. Fouad, Fadi Hammal, Yara Jarallah, Mostafa Mohamed, Rima Nakkash
Women & Health
Urban College Student Self Report of Hookah Use with Health Care Providers
Samir Ranjit Jani, Darryl Brown, Zekarias Berhane, Nadja Peter, Renee Turchi, Susan Solecki
Journal of American College Health
A Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Mortality in Bangladesh
Fen Wu, Yu Chen, Faruque Parvez, Stephanie Segers, Maria Argos, Tariqul Islam, Alauddin Ahmed, Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman, Rabiul Hasan, Golam Sarwar, Habibul Ahsan, Qinghua Sun
Oxides of carbon, particulate matters and volatile organic compounds impact on indoor air quality during waterpipe smoking
A. N. Al-Dabbous, A. R. Khan, S. A. Al-Tamimi, M. Shalash, A. D. Bajoga, M. J. Malek
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
The Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Craving and Dependence on Hookah in Suburban Pregnant Women in South East of Iran
Kheirolnesa Mojahed, Ali Navidian
Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Tobacco consumption, opium use, alcohol drinking and the risk of esophageal cancer in North Khorasan, Iran
Seyed-Javad Pournaghi, Seyed Kaveh Hojjat, Farhad Barazandeh Noveyri, Hamid Tavakkoli Ghouchani, Ali Ahmadi, Andishe Hamedi, Jamileh Rahimi, Hadi Mohamaddoust, Hossein Lashkardoost
Journal of Substance Use
Implications and challenges for implementation of the FDA’s final deeming rule for waterpipe tobacco
Erin L Sutfin, Eric K Soule, Karma McKelvey, Desmond Jenson
Tobacco Control
Prevalence and factors associated with use of hookah tobacco among young adults in the U.S.
Julia N. Soulakova, Thanh Pham, Victoria L. Owens, Lisa J. Crockett
Addictive Behaviors
Hookah Use among Russian adolescents: Prevalence and correlates
Artur Galimov, Omar El Shahawy, Jennifer B. Unger, Radik Masagutov, Steve Sussman
Addictive Behaviors
U.S. adult perceptions of the harmfulness of tobacco products: descriptive findings from the 2013–14 baseline wave 1 of the path study
Geoffrey T. Fong, Tara Elton-Marshall, Pete Driezen, Annette R. Kaufman, K. Michael Cummings, Kelvin Choi, Jonathan Kwan, Amber Koblitz, Andrew Hyland, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Charles Carusi, Mary E. Thompson
Addictive Behaviors
Imitating waterpipe: Another tobacco industry attempt to create a cigarette that seems safer
Isra Ahmad, Lauren M. Dutra
Addictive Behaviors
Message and Delivery Preferences for Online Tobacco Education among Adolescents and Young Adults
Allison J. Lazard, Lindsey Horrell, Jessica Pikowski, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Seth M. Noar, Erin L. Sutfin
Journal of Health Communication
Proteomic Changes in Oral Keratinocytes Chronically Exposed to Shisha (Water Pipe)
Shankargouda Patil, Tejaswini Subbannayya, Sonali V. Mohan, Niraj Babu, Jayshree Advani, Gajanan Sathe, Pavithra Rajagopalan, Krishna Patel, Shilpa Bhandi, Hitendra Solanki, David Sidransky, Harsha Gowda, Aditi Chatterjee, Marco Ferrari
OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology
Water Pipe (Hookah) Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Aruni Bhatnagar, Wasim Maziak, Thomas Eissenberg, Kenneth D. Ward, George Thurston, Brian A. King, Erin L. Sutfin, Caroline O. Cobb, Merlyn Griffiths, Larry B. Goldstein, Mary Rezk-Hanna
Taking a Stand: An Untapped Strategy to Reduce Waterpipe Smoking in Adolescents
Rathi Ramji, Maria Nilsson, Bengt Arnetz, Ywonne Wiklund, Judy Arnetz
Substance Use & Misuse
Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A mini-review
Sankalp Yadav, Gautam Rawal
Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
Chemical characterization of nanoparticles and volatiles present in mainstream hookah smoke
Véronique Perraud, Michael Lawler, Kurtis Malecha, Rebecca Johnson, David Herman, Norbert Staimer, Michael Kleinman, Sergey Nizkorodov, James Smith
Aerosol Science and Technology
Prevalence and correlates of concurrent use of cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and waterpipes among Serbian youth
Biljana Kilibarda, Dejana Vukovic, Srmena Krstev
Tobacco Induced Diseases
Lifetime prevalence and correlates of smoking behavior in Iranian adults’ population; a cross-sectional study
Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Mohammad Mansournia, Yahya Salimi, Saharnaz Nedjat
BMC Public Health
Acute and long-term effects of water pipe smoking on the respiratory system: A narrative review
Waqar Mogassabi, SaraS Hassen, SaharA Mahadik, ReemS Mubarak, WanisH Ibrahim
Ibnosina Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
Construction and validation of the water pipe harm perception scale (WHPS-6) among the Lebanese population
Souheil Hallit, Chadia Haddad, Malhab Bou, Lydia Khabbaz, Pascale Salameh
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Evidence of compensation among waterpipe smokers using harm reduction components
Marielle Brinkman, Hyoshin Kim, Stephanie Buehler, Anna Adetona, Sydney Gordon, Pamela Clark
Tobacco Control
Obscenity of cigarette and hookah smoking in Iranian adolescents: A longitudinal school-based study
Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Ali Bahari, Soudabeh Marin, Mohammad Hajizadeh
International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Iranian women: a qualitative directed content analysis
Leila Sabzmakan, Fatemeh Eslami, Shirin Sighaldeh, Nkeonye Izuka
BMC Women's Health
Effect of Educational Intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behavior on Preventing Water Pipe Smoking in Secondary School Students
Ali Khani-jeihooni, Mahboobeh Razavi, Mansour Kashfi, Mehdi Ansari, Tahereh Gholami
Journal of Education and Community Health
Predictors of hookah smoking frequency among women in the South of Iran: A cross-sectional study
Sakineh Dadipoor, Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Teamur Aghamolaei, Ali Heyrani, Mohtasham Ghaffari, Amin Ghanbarnejad
Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse

Smoking Cessation Beliefs Among Saudi University Students in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

Yasser Almogbel
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Influence of genetic polymorphisms on waterpipe smoking phenotypes
Sandrella Malhab, Aline Hajj, Fabienne Lteif, Pascale Salameh, Lydia Khabbaz
Gene Reports
Interventions to prevent periodontal disease in tobacco‐, alcohol‐, and drug‐dependent individuals
Purnima Kumar
Periodontology 2000
Perceptions of Waterpipe Smoking among Young Adults: A Phenomenological Study
Amraj. Dhillon, Tim Doran, Vishal. Aggarwal
Dentistry Journal
Cancer in Lebanon: A Review of Incidence Rates from 2008 to 2015 and Projections Till 2025
Hussein Khachfe, Zahraa Rahal, Julie Sammouri, Mira Kheil, Hussein Baydoun, Dana Chatila, Hiba Dirawi, Fouad Fouad
South Asian Journal of Cancer
Hookah Smoking with Health Risk Perception of Different Types of Tobacco
H Jamil, M Albahri, N Al-Noor, T Al-Noor, A Heydari, A Rajan, J Arnetz, B Arnetz, L Tawfiq
Journal of Physics: Conference Series
Health Claims, Marketing Appeals, and Warnings on Popular Brands of Waterpipe Tobacco Packaging Sold in the United States
Erin Sutfin, Allison Lazard, Eric Soule, Caroline Kimes, Jessica King, Desmond Jenson, Jennifer Ross
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure after Water Pipe Smoking in Hookah Bars
Helen St., Neal Benowitz, Katherine Dains, Christopher Havel, Margaret Peng, Peyton Jacob
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
Prospective estimation of the age of initiation of hookah use among youth: Findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study waves 1–4 (2013–2017)
Adriana Pérez, Arnold Kuk, Meagan Bluestein, Melissa Harrell, Cheryl Perry, Baojiang Chen
Addictive Behaviors
Popular water pipe smoking, medical sciences students' awareness, perceptions, and motivations
Leili Salehi
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Hookah venue employees’ knowledge and perceptions of hookah tobacco smoking
Byron Crape, Tansholpan Yakhiyayeva, Kainar Kadyrzhanuly, Arnur Gusmanov, Dzhamilya Sadykova
Tobacco Control
Waterpipe Tobacco Warnings: An Experimental Study Among a Nationally Representative Sample of US Young Adults
Erin Sutfin, Allison Lazard, Ross Cornacchione, Seth Noar, Beth Reboussin
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Particulate matter pollution in Hookah lounges in Palestine
Randal Martin, Abdelhaleem Khader
Journal of Aerosol Science
Comparative Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Cigarette, Cigarillo, and Shisha Tobacco Products in Epithelial and Cardiac Cells
Carmen Tellez, Daniel Juri, Loryn Phillips, Kieu Do, Cindy Thomas, Randy Willink, Wendy Dye, Guodong Wu, Yue Zhou, Hammad Irshad, Shosei Kishida, Tohru Kiyono, Steven Belinsky
Toxicological Sciences
Predictors of waterpipe smoking among university students in the Qassim region, Saudi Arabia
Yasser Almogbel, Thara Aladhadh, Atheer Alammar, Atheer Aloraini, Sumayyah Alghofaili, Abdullah Almutairi, Abdulrahman AlAmri
Tobacco Induced Diseases
Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) validation in a sample of Lebanese adolescents
Souheil Hallit, Sahar Obeid, Hala Sacre, Pascale Salameh
BMC Public Health
Thirdhand smoke from tobacco, e-cigarettes, cannabis, methamphetamine and cocaine: Partitioning, reactive fate, and human exposure in indoor environments
Kristen Yeh, Li Li, Frank Wania, Jonathan Abbatt
Environment International
Study of Effective Factors in the Tendency of Young People to Smoke Hookah in Teahouses in Deprived Areas of Zahedan in 2018 - 2019
Khaled Badpa, Mohammad Fardin
Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research
Chronic Exposure to Waterpipe Smoke Elicits Immunomodulatory and Carcinogenic Effects in the Lung
Maya Hassane, Zahraa Rahal, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Jiexin Zhang, Ansam Sinjab, Justin Wong, Wei Lu, Paul Scheet, J. Lee, Maria Raso, Luisa Solis, Junya Fujimoto, Hassan Chami, Alan Shihadeh, Humam Kadara
Cancer Prevention Research
Joint Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoking as Key Correlate of History of Depression in Iranian Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Zahra Golestannejad, Yahya Salimi, Saharnaz Nedjat, Isabel Aguilar-Palacioc, Mohammad Mansournia, Courten de
Tobacco Use Insights
Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Iranian women: A qualitative directed content analysis
Leila Sabzmakan, Fatemeh Eslami, Shirin Sighaldeh, Nkeonye Izuka
Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Iranian women: A qualitative directed content analysis
leila sabzmakan, Fatemeh Eslami, Shirin Sighaldeh, Nkeonye Izuka
Examining of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Hookah Smokers
Amir Ghaderi, Amir Khoshakhlagh, Masoome Irani, Azam Ghaseminezhad, Prem Gautam, Nezam Mirzaei, Hamid Banafshe, Bahador Nemati, Heshmatollah Ghalerashidi
Biological Trace Element Research
Discussion of waterpipe tobacco smoking on reddit
Zihe Zheng, Zidian Xie, Dongmei Li
Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Iranian women: A qualitative directed content analysis
Leila Sabzmakan, Fatemeh Eslami, Shirin Sighaldeh, Nkeonye Izuka
Cryopreservation of Deciduous Teeth Originated Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Different Techniques
Tolga Akkoç, Deniz Genç, Tunç Akkoç
Journal of Academic Research in Medicine
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Waterpipe Smokers in Sulaimani City/ Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Hama Ibrahim, Ibrahem M., Kamal Mustafa
Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research
Factors that contribute in the first hookah smoking trial by women: an epidemiological review
Hamed Delam, Rafsanjani Ayatollah, Ahmadreza Eidi, Reza Zare, Fatemeh Zare
Journal of Substance Use
Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among shisha smokers in the Fayoum Governorate
Essawy El, Radwa Elhefny, Randa Ahmed, Samar Fouad
Egyptian Journal of Bronchology
Decoding Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: A Comprehensive Narrative Review Exploring Mechanics, Health Risks, Regulatory Challenges, and Public Health Imperatives
Sankalp Yadav
A descriptive study of waterpipe smoking among college students
Devon Noonan
Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
Association between history of hookah use and symptoms of postpartum depression: A population‐based study
Zelalem T. Haile, Sabrina Karim, Kasey Murton, Sravya Patibandla, Mohammad Rifat Haider
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Determining the perceived risk of lung cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) among hookah users in Iran
Abdolhalim Rajabi, Abdurraouf Cheperli, Ali Shahryari, Abdurrahman Charkazi, Fatemeh Zarghami
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top