Effect of cigarette smoke condensate on gene promoter methylation in human lung cells
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HFT-100, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, USA
Submission date: 2014-03-14
Acceptance date: 2014-08-28
Publication date: 2014-09-05
Corresponding author
George Hammons   

HFT-100, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2014;12(September):15
In lung cancer, an association between tobacco smoking and promoter DNA hypermethylation has been demonstrated for several genes. However, underlying mechanisms for promoter hypermethylation in tobacco-induced cancer are yet to be fully established.

Promoter methylation was evaluated in control and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) exposed human lung cells using the Methyl-Profiler DNA Methylation PCR System. PSAE cells were exposed to 0.3 or 1.0 μg/ml CSC for 72 hours and longer term for 14 and 30 days. NL-20 cells were exposed for 30 days to 10 or 100 μg/ml CSC.

Promoters of several genes, including hsa-let-7a-3, CHD1, CXCL12, PAX5, RASSF2, and TCF21, were highly methylated (>90%); hsa-let-7a-3 was affected in both cell lines and under all exposure conditions. Level of methylation tended to increase with CSC concentration and exposure duration (statistical differences were not determined). Percentage methylation of TCF21, which was >98% at exposures of 10 or 100 μg/ml CSC, was found to be reduced to 28% and 42%, respectively, in the presence of the dietary agent genistein.

Using array techniques, several tumor suppressor genes in human lung cells were identified that undergo promoter hypermethylation, providing further evidence of their potential involvement in tobacco smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis and their use as potential biomarkers of harm in tobacco smoke exposure. Results from the study also demonstrated the potential of a dietary agent to exert chemopreventive activity in human tissue against tobacco smoke related diseases through modulation of DNA methylation. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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