RESEARCH PAPER
The association between cigarette smoking and obstructive sleep apnea
Wen-Yu Hsu 1, 2, 3
,  
Nan-Ying Chiu 2, 3
,  
Cheng-Chen Chang 2, 3
,  
Hsien-Yuan Lane 1, 4, 5  
 
 
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1
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
2
Department of Psychiatry, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
4
Department of Psychiatry & Brain Disease Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
5
Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Hsien-Yuan Lane   

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, 40402, Taichung, Taiwan
Publish date: 2019-04-05
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2019;17(April):27
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious sleep disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of paused or shallow breathing during sleep. Patients with OSA often have excessive daytime sleepiness. The role of cigarette smoking in OSA remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and OSA.

Methods:
In this retrospective chart review, we reviewed 18-month sleep laboratory charts in central Taiwan. We collected data regarding sleep, current cigarette smoking status, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, and polysomnographic sleep parameters. In total, 733 subjects were recruited; among these, 151 were smokers and 582 were nonsmokers.

Results:
Smokers had significantly higher apnea–hypopnea index (p<0.001) for non-rapid eye movement sleep stage, higher apnea–hypopnea index (p<0.001) for total sleep time, and higher snore frequency (p<0.001) in t-test analysis. They also demonstrated higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores, shorter sleep times, lower percentage of slow-wave (deep) sleep, and longer snore times. However, no significant association was found between cigarette smoking and OSA after adjusting for sex, age, and BMI (OR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.66–1.57).

Conclusions:
We did not find any significant association between cigarette smoking and OSA after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. Further well-designed prospective controlled cohort studies might clarify the relationship between cigarette smoking and OSA.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
Authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
There was no source of funding for this research.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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