RESEARCH PAPER
Unhealthy eating habits among adolescent waterpipe smokers in Jordan: The Irbid-TRY study
 
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1
Maternal and Child Health Department, Faculty of Nursing, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
2
Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Publish date: 2018-05-09
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(May):19
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
The relationship between waterpipe smoking and eating habits among adolescents has not been investigated, thus the aim of the current study was to compare eating habits among adolescent cigarette-only, waterpipe-only, dual smokers versus non-smokers. We hypothesize that adolescent smokers practice unhealthy eating habits with worse habits among waterpipe smokers and dual smokers.

Methods:
Using a descriptive, cross-sectional design, self-reporting patterns of waterpipe, cigarette smoking and eating habits were collected from a random representative sample of 1720 boys and girls in grades 7–10 in Northern Jordan.

Results:
A total of 6.9%, 23.2% and 26.2% reported cigarette-only, waterpipe-only, and dual smoking, respectively. After controlling for gender, family income and education level of the mother and father, subsequent post hoc ANCOVA analyses revealed the following: mean (±SD) weekly breakfast consumption was greater in non-smokers (3.9±2.4) than waterpipe-only smokers (3.5±2.5, p=0.040) and dual smokers (3.2±2.5, p<0.000). Mean soda consumption frequency was lower in non-smokers (3.6±2.3) versus waterpipe-only (4.2±2.3, p=0.004) and dual smokers (2.7±2.2, p<0.000). Mean vegetable consumption was less in waterpipeonly (4.5±2.0, p=0.026) and dual smoking (4.4±2.0, p=0.013) smokers versus non-smokers (4.8±1.8). Mean consumption of energy drinks was the highest among dual smokers (1.2±1.9) versus non-smokers (0.5±1.4, p<0.000), cigaretteonly (0.6±1.4, p≤0.01), and waterpipe-only (0.6±1.4, p<0.000) smokers.

Conclusions:
Overall, both waterpipe and dual smoking are associated with several unhealthy eating habits in adolescents. Given the growing epidemic of tobacco smoking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, especially adolescent waterpipe smoking, and its association with unhealthy eating habits, public health actions and enforcing policies to decrease uptake of waterpipe smoking as well as improving food choices in schools among youth are urgently needed.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Nihaya A. Al-sheyab   
Maternal and Child Health Department, Faculty of Nursing, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan
 
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