Trends in smokeless tobacco use in the us workforce: 1987-2005
More details
Hide details
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, 1120 NW 14 Street, 15 Floor C202, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, 1120 NW 14 Street, 10 Floor, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
Publish date: 2011-06-01
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2011;9(June):6
The primary aim was to examine whether increasing workplace smoking restrictions have led to an increase in smokeless tobacco use among US workers. Smokeless tobacco exposure increases the risk of oral cavity, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers, and stroke. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use decreased from 1987- 2000, except among men 25-44. While smokeless tobacco use has declined in the general population, it may be that the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has increased among workers due to workplace smoking restrictions, which have been shown to have increased over the years. Using the most current nationally representative National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data, we examined whether increasing workplace smoking restrictions have led to an increase in smokeless tobacco use among US workers (n = 125,838). There were no significant changes in smokeless tobacco use prevalence from 1987-2005 (pooled prevalence = 3.53%); rates also were lower in smoke free workplaces. Worker groups with high rates of smokeless tobacco use included farm workers (10.51%) and blue collar workers (7.26%). Results indicate that smokeless tobacco prevention strategies targeting particular worker groups are warranted.
Noella A. Dietz   
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, 1120 NW 14 Street, 15 Floor C202, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
1. Tomar , Scott L: "Epidemiological perspective for tobacco risk reduction". NIH-State-of-the-Science Conference, Tobacco Use Prevention Cessation Control. NIH: June 12-14. 2006.
2. Lee , John H: "Smokeless tobacco and head and neck cancer: there is risk even without fire". South Dakota Medicine. 2009, 38-39. Spec No.
3. Boffetta , Paolo , Hecht Stephen, Gray Nigel, Gupta Prakash, Straif Kurt: "Smokeless tobacco and cancer". The Lancet Oncology. 2008, 9: 667-675. 10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70173-6.
4. Hergens MP, Lambe M, Pershagen G, Terent A, Ye W: "Smokeless tobacco and the risk of stroke". Epidemiology. 2008, 19 (6): 794-799. 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181878b33.
5. Hecht , Stephen S, Steven Carmella, Sharon Murphy, William Riley, Chap Le, Xianghua Luo, Marc Mooney, Dorothy Hatsukami: "Similar Exposure to a Tobacco Specific Carcinogen in Smokeless Tobacco Users and Cigarette Smokers". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention. 2007, 16 (8): 1567-1572. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0227.
6. Nelson , David E, Mowery Paul, Tomar Scott, Marcus Stephen, Giovino Gary, Zhao Luhua: "Trends in smokeless tobacco use among adults and adolescents in the United States". American Journal of Public Health. 2006, 96 (5): 897-905. 10.2105/AJPH.2004.061580.
7. Timberlake , David S, Huh Jimi: "Demographic Profiles of Smokeless Tobacco Users in the US". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2009, 37 (1): 29-34. 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.03.010.
8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (February 19, 2009). The NSDUH Report: Smokeless Tobacco Use, Initiation, and Relationship to Cigarette Smoking:. 2002, Rockville, MD, Accessed March 5, 2011, to 2007.
9. US Department of Human Services: The Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2006, Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
10. Shopland DR, Gerlach KK, Burns DM, Hartman AM, Gibson JT: "State-Specific Trends in Smoke-Free Workplace Policy Coverage: The Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement, 1993 to 1999. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2001, 43: 680-686. 10.1097/00043764-200108000-00005.
11. CDC: "State Smoking Restrictions for Private-Sector Worksites, Restaurants, and Bars--United States, 2004 and 2007". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2008, 57: 549-552.
12. Mejia , Adrienne B, Ling Pamela, Glantz Stanton: "Quantifying the effects of promoting smokeless tobacco as a harm reduction strategy in the USA". Tobacco Control. 2010, 19: 297-305. 10.1136/tc.2009.031427.
13. Stratton K, Shetty P, Wallace R, Bondurant S, editors: Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction. Institute of Medicine. 2001, Washington DC: National Academy Press.
14. Ramstrom L: Snuff--An Alternative Nicotine Delivery System. Nicotine and Public Health. Edited by: Ferrence R, Slade J, Room R, Pope M. 2000, Washington DC: American Public Health Association, 159-178.
15. Hatsukami , Dorothy K, Lemmonds Charlotte, Tomar Scott: "Smokeless Tobacco Use: Harm Reduction or Induction Approachż". Preventive Medicine. 2004, 309-317.
16. Fowler FJ: The redesign of the National Health Interview Survey. Public Health Rep. 1996, 111: 508-511.
17. National Health Interview Survey, 2001: Codebook: 2001. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics (US). Accessed January 20, 2009, [].
18. US Department of Commerce (USDC), Bureau of the Census: Alphabetical Index of Industries and Occupations. 1992, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
19. Botman SL, Jack SS: Combining National Health Interview Survey Datasets: issues and approaches. Stat Med. 1995, 14: 669-677. 10.1002/sim.4780140523.
20. Mejia , Adrienne B, Ling Pamela: "Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development". American Journal of Public Health. 2010, 100 (1): 78-87. 10.2105/AJPH.2008.152603.
21. Fichtenberg , Caroline M, Glantz Stanton: "Effect of Smoke-free Workplaces on Smoking Behavior: Systematic Review". British Medical Journal. 2002, 188-191.
22. Messer , Karen , Mills Alice, White Martha, Pierce John: "The Effect of Smoke-Free Homes on Smoking Behavior in the US". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008, 35 (3): 210-216. 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.05.023.
23. Lee , Chung-wo , Kahende Jennifer: "Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in the United States, 2000". American Journal of Public Health. 2007, 97 (8): 1503-1509. 10.2105/AJPH.2005.083527.
24. Dietz , Noella A, Lee David, Arheart Kristopher, Wilkinson James, Clark John, Caban-Martinez Alberto: "Correlates of Home Smoking Bans Among Young Adults". Florida Public Health Review. 2007, 4: 8-11.
25. Hammond D, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, Borland R: "Tobacco Denormalization and Industry Beliefs Among Smokers from Four Countries". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2006, 31: 225-232. 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.04.004.
1. An examination of the benefits of health promotion programs for the national fire service
Walker SC Poston, Christopher K Haddock, Sara A Jahnke, Nattinee Jitnarin, R Sue Day
BMC Public Health
2. The Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on US Smokeless Tobacco Use: A Structured Review
David T. Levy, Darren Mays, Raymond G. Boyle, Jamie Tam, Frank J. Chaloupka
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
3. High Cigarette and Poly-Tobacco Use Among Workers in a Dusty Industry
Judith M. Graber, Karen Worthington, Kirsten S. Almberg, Qingyu Meng, Cecile S. Rose, Robert A. Cohen
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
4. Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco, and Poly-Tobacco Among Workers in Three Dusty Industries
Judith M. Graber, Cristine D. Delnevo, Michelle T. Bover Manderski, Olivia A. Wackowski, Cecile S. Rose, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia, Robert A. Cohen
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
5. Factors Associated with Smokeless Tobacco Use and Dual Use among Blue Collar Workers
Devon Noonan, Sonia A. Duffy
Public Health Nursing
6. Smokeless Tobacco Use: A Risk Factor for Hyperhomocysteinemia in a Pakistani Population
Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohsin Yakub, Utpal Sen
7. Changes in Cigarette Smoking Behavior Among US Young Workers From 2005 to 2010: The Role of Occupation
Taghrid Asfar, Kristopher L. Arheart, Noella A. Dietz, Alberto J. Caban-Martinez, Lora E. Fleming, David J. Lee
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
8. Tobacco Use Pattern Among a National Firefighter Cohort
Nattinee Jitnarin, Walker SC Poston, Christopher K. Haddock, Sara A. Jahnke, Rena S. Day
Nicotine & Tobacco Research