RESEARCH PAPER
The role of tobacco use on dental care and oral disease severity within community dental clinics in Japan
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
2
Section of Oral Public Health, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan
3
Section of Medical Statistics, Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Takashi Hanioka   

Section of Oral Public Health, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan
Publish date: 2013-06-21
 
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2013;11(June):13
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
To examine facilitators of dental smoking intervention practices in Japan, where smokeless tobacco is rarely used, we evaluated the characteristics of dental care for smokers.

Methods:
Community dentists volunteered to record the treated disease or encounter with patients that was principally responsible for their dental care on the survey day. Patients were classified into groups receiving gingival/periodontal treatment (GPT), caries/endodontic treatment (CET), prosthetic treatment (PRT), periodical check-up/orthodontic treatment (POT), or other encounters/treatments. Potential effect of dentist clustering was adjusted by incorporating the complex survey design into the analysis.

Results:
Data of 2835 current smokers (CS) and 6850 non-smokers (NS) from 753 clinics were analysed. Distribution of treatments significantly differed between CS and NS (P = 0.001). In ad hoc multiple comparisons for each treatment, CS were significantly higher than NS for CET (47.1% vs. 43.6%, P = 0.002), and lower for POT (1.6% vs. 2.7%, P = 0.001), whereas GPT and PRT proportions were equivalent by smoking. When stage of disease progression was compared in the GPT subpopulation, CS were more likely received treatment for advanced stage disease than NS in the age groups of 40–59 years (24.9% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.001) and more than 60 years (40.8% vs. 22.1%, P < 0.001). However, the difference was less apparent in the entire population (9.7% vs. 6.0%), and CS were not predominant among patients receiving GPT for advanced stage disease (37.6%).

Conclusions:
The association of smoking with type of dental care of CET and GPT severity would warrant the need for dental professionals to engage their patients smoking within clinical practice. The detrimental effects of smoking in dental care for smokers, as evidenced by the distribution of treatment and encounter and stage of treated disease, may not be clearly realized by dental professionals, unless the smoking status of all patients is identified.

 
REFERENCES (33)
1.
Hanioka T, Ojima M, Kawaguchi Y, Hirata Y, Ogawa H, Mochizuki Y: Tobacco interventions by dentists and dental hygienists. Jpn Dent Sci Rev. 2013, 49: 47-56. 10.1016/j.jdsr.2012.11.005.
 
2.
Weaver RG, Whittaker L, Valachovic RW, Broom A: Tobacco control and prevention effort in dental education. J Dent Educ. 2002, 66: 426-429.
 
3.
Barker GJ, Williams KB: Tobacco use cessation activities in U.S. dental and dental hygiene student clinics. J Dent Educ. 1999, 63: 828-833.
 
4.
Mecklenburg RE, Christen AG, Gerbert B, Gift HC, Glynn TJ, Jones RB, Lindsay E, Manley MW, Severson H: Tobacco effects in the mouth. A National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Dental Research guide for health professionals. 1994, Bethesda, Md: DHHS, USPHS, NIH, NCI (NIH Publication 94–3330).
 
5.
Mecklenburg R, Scotts RC: Chapter 8. Recommendations for the control of smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco or health: an international perspective, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No.2. 1992, 337-350.http://cancercontrol.cancer.go....
 
6.
Kallischnigg G, Weitkunat R, Lee PN: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic oral diseases in Europe and the United States. BMC Oral Health. 2008, 8: 13-10.1186/1472-6831-8-13.
 
7.
Bunnell A, Pettit N, Reddout N, Sharma K, O'Malley S, Chino M, Kingsley K: Analysis of primary risk factors for oral cancer from select US states with increasing rates. Tob Induc Dis. 2010, 8: 5-10.1186/1617-9625-8-5.
 
8.
Dangi J, Kinnunen TH, Zavras AI: Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India. Tob Induc Dis. 2012, 10: 5-10.1186/1617-9625-10-5.
 
9.
Khanna S: The interaction between tobacco use and oral health among tribes in central India. Tob Induc Dis. 2012, 10: 16-10.1186/1617-9625-10-16.
 
10.
US Department of Health and Human Services: Oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, congenital malformations, infant mortality and child physical and cognitive development, and dental diseases. The health consequences of smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. 2004, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 63-115. 577–601, and 732–766.
 
11.
Hanioka T, Ojima M, Tanaka K, Matsuo K, Sato F, Tanaka H: Causal assessment of smoking and tooth loss: a systematic review of observational studies. BMC Publ Health. 2011, 11: 221-10.1186/1471-2458-11-221.
 
12.
Dye BA, Morin NM, Robison V: The relationship between cigarette smoking and perceived dental treatment needs in the United States, 1988–1994. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006, 137: 224-234.
 
13.
Drilea SK, Reid BC, Li CH, Hyman JJ, Manski RJ: Dental visits among smoking and nonsmoking US adults in 2000. Am J Health Behav. 2005, 29: 462-471. 10.5993/AJHB.29.5.9.
 
14.
Health Statistics Office, Statistics and Information Department, Minister’s Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan: Dental clinic questionnaire of patient survey. 2005, Tokyo,http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/....
 
15.
Andrews JA, Severson HH, Lichtenstein E, Gordon JS: Relationship between tobacco use and self-reported oral hygiene habits. J Am Dent Assoc. 1998, 129: 313-320.
 
16.
Ojima M, Hanioka T, Tanaka K, Inoshita E, Aoyama H: Relationship between smoking status and periodontal conditions: findings from national databases in Japan. J Periodontal Res. 2006, 41: 573-579. 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2006.00915.x.
 
17.
Hanioka T, Ojima M, Tanaka K, Aoyama H: Relationship between smoking status and tooth loss: findings from national databases in Japan. J Epidemiol. 2007, 17: 125-132. 10.2188/jea.17.125.
 
18.
Ojima M, Hanioka T, Tanaka K, Aoyama H: Cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among young adults: a national record linkage study. BMC Publ Health. 2007, 7: 313-10.1186/1471-2458-7-313.
 
19.
Dietrich T, Bernimoulin JP, Glynn RJ: The effect of cigarette smoking on gingival bleeding. J Periodontol. 2004, 75: 16-22. 10.1902/jop.2004.75.1.16.
 
20.
Imai H: Survey on smoking cessation intervention in dental clinics in Japan. Support and promotion of the comprehensive achievement on health promotion plan by tobacco control. A report of the Health and Labour Sciences Research Grants for Clinical Cancer Prevention and Health Services. Edited by: Hayashi K. 2010, 89-115. Article No. 200925010A.
 
21.
Bruno-Ambrosius K, Swanholm G, Twetman S: Eating habits, smoking and toothbrushing in relation to dental caries: a 3-year study in Swedish female teenagers. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2005, 15: 190-196. 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2005.00621.x.
 
22.
Bartoloni JA, Chao SY, Martin GC, Caron GA: Dental caries risk in the U.S. Air Force. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006, 137: 1582-1591.
 
23.
Becker T, Levin L, Shochat T, Einy S: How much does the DMFT index underestimate the need for restorative care?. J Dent Educ. 2007, 71: 677-681.
 
24.
Aguilar-Zinser V, Irigoyen ME, Rivera G, Maupomé G, Sánchez-Pérez L, Velázquez C: Cigarette smoking and dental caries among professional truck drivers in Mexico. Caries Res. 2008, 42: 255-262. 10.1159/000135670.
 
25.
Campus G, Cagetti MG, Senna A, Blasi G, Mascolo A, Demarchi P, Strohmenger L: Does smoking increase risk for caries? a cross-sectional study in an Italian military academy. Caries Res. 2011, 45: 40-46. 10.1159/000322852.
 
26.
Huang R, Li M, Gregory RL: Effect of nicotine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012, 120: 319-325.
 
27.
Fujinami Y, Nakano K, Ueda O, Ara T, Hattori T, Kawakami T, Wang PL: Dental caries area of rat molar expanded by cigarette smoke exposure. Caries Res. 2011, 45: 561-567. 10.1159/000331926.
 
28.
Kumar PS, Matthews CR, Joshi V, de Jager M, Aspiras M: Tobacco smoking affects bacterial acquisition and colonization in oral biofilms. Infect Immun. 2011, 79: 4730-4738. 10.1128/IAI.05371-11.
 
29.
Bagaitkar J, Daep CA, Patel CK, Renaud DE, Demuth DR, Demuth DR, Scott DA: Tobacco smoke augments Porphyromonas gingivalis - streptococcus gordonii biofilm formation. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e27386-10.1371/journal.pone.0027386.
 
30.
Ojima M, Hanioka T: Destructive effects of smoking on molecular and genetic factors of periodontal disease. Tob Induc Dis. 2010, 8: 4-10.1186/1617-9625-8-4.
 
31.
Dietrich T, Maserejian NN, Joshipura KJ, Krall EA, Garcia RI: Tobacco use and incidence of tooth loss among US male health professionals. J Dent Res. 2007, 86: 373-377. 10.1177/154405910708600414.
 
32.
Zitzmann NU, Staehelin K, Walls AWG, Menghini G, Weiger R, Zemp Stutz E: Changes in oral health over a 10-yr period in Switzerland. Eur J Oral Sci. 2008, 116: 52-59. 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2007.00512.x.
 
33.
Ide R, Hoshuyama T, Wilson D, Takahashi K, Higashi T: The effects of smoking on dental care utilization and its costs in Japan. J Dent Res. 2009, 88: 66-70. 10.1177/0022034508327523.
 
 
CITATIONS (5):
1.
Endodontic medicine: connections between apical periodontitis and systemic diseases
J. J. Segura-Egea, J. Martín-González, L. Castellanos-Cosano
International Endodontic Journal
 
2.
Nicotine is a risk factor for dental caries: An  in vivo study
Shiyu Liu, Tianmu Wu, Xuedong Zhou, Bo Zhang, Sibei Huo, Yutao Yang, Keke Zhang, Lei Cheng, Xin Xu, Mingyun Li
Journal of Dental Sciences
 
3.
Nicotine promotes Streptococcus mutans extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, cell aggregation and overall lactate dehydrogenase activity
R. Huang, M. Li, R.L. Gregory
Archives of Oral Biology
 
4.
A national opinion study supports tobacco cessation by oral health professionals in Japan
Toru Nagao, Jinichi Fukuta, Kanichi Seto, Keietsu Saigo, Takashi Hanioka, Kenichi Kurita, Iwai Tonai, Masashi Yamashiro, Mikio Kusama, Kazuto Satomura, Yuichi Izumi, Koji Mizutani, Norio Aoyama, Yuka Tsumanuma, Yutaka Imai, Yoshiki Ishigaki, Masahiko Nikaido, Hiroyuki Yoshino, Toshiro Sugai, Hiromasa Kawana, Suguru Hamada, Akira Matsuo, Kazue Miura
Translational Research in Oral Oncology
 
5.
The novel association between red complex of oral microbe and body mass index in healthy Japanese: a population based cross-sectional study
Kanae Matsushita, Masahide Hamaguchi, Motomu Hashimoto, Masahiro Yamazaki, Toru Yamazaki, Keita Asai, Masashi Yamori, Kazuhisa Bessho, Hitoshi Toda, Goji Hasegawa, Naoto Nakamura, Michiaki Fukui
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
 
eISSN:1617-9625