The promise of long-term effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention programs: a critical review of reviews
Brian R Flay 1  
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Department of Public Health, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA
Submission date: 2008-09-30
Acceptance date: 2009-03-26
Publication date: 2009-03-26
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2009;5(March):7
I provide a review and critique of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of school-based smoking prevention programs that focus on long-term effects. Several of these reviews conclude that the effects of school-based smoking prevention programs are small and find no evidence that they have significant long-term effects. I find that these reviews all have methodological problems limiting their conclusions. These include severe limiting of the studies included because of performance bias, student attrition, non-reporting of ICCs, inappropriate classification of intervention approach, and inclusion of programs that had no short-term effects. The more-inclusive meta-analyses suggest that school-based smoking prevention programs can have significant and practical effects in both the short- and the long-term. Findings suggest that school-based smoking prevention programs can have significant long-term effects if they: 1) are interactive social influences or social skills programs; that 2) involve 15 or more sessions, including some up to at least ninth grade; that 3) produce substantial short-term effects. The effects do decay over time if the interventions are stopped or withdrawn, but this is true of any kind of intervention.
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Tobacco control approaches and inequity—how far have we come and where are we going?
Kate R. Purcell, Kerryn O'Rourke, Maya Rivis
Health Promotion International
Cognitive mediators and disparities in the relation between teen depressiveness and smoking
Ritesh Mistry, Giridhara R. Babu, Tanmay Mahapatra, William J. McCarthy
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Effectiveness of the ‘Healthy School and Drugs’ prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial
Monique Malmberg, Marloes Kleinjan, Geertjan Overbeek, Ad Vermulst, Karin Monshouwer, Jeroen Lammers, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Rutger C. M. E. Engels
Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan
Hye-Jin Paek, Thomas Hove, Hyun Jung Oh
Journal of School Health
A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study
Steve Sussman, David S. Black, Louise A. Rohrbach
Journal of Drug Education
Social Networks and Smoking
David R. Schaefer, jimi adams, Steven A. Haas
Health Education & Behavior
Process evaluation of a tobacco prevention program in Indian schools--methods, results and lessons learnt
S. Goenka, A. Tewari, M. Arora, M. H. Stigler, C. L. Perry, J. P. S. Arnold, S. Kulathinal, K. S. Reddy
Health Education Research
Effectiveness of a school-based multi-component smoking prevention intervention: The LdP cluster randomized controlled trial
Giuseppe Gorini, Giulia Carreras, Sandra Bosi, Marco Tamelli, Claudia Monti, Simone Storani, Andrea Martini, Elias Allara, Paola Angelini, Fabrizio Faggiano
Preventive Medicine
Efficacy of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Smoking Prevention Intervention for Dutch Adolescents: Randomized Controlled Trial
Sanne de Josselin de Jong, Math Candel, Dewi Segaar, Henricus-Paul Cremers, Hein de Vries
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Evaluation of a Swedish version of the Strengthening Families Programme
E. Skarstrand, K. Sundell, S. Andreasson
The European Journal of Public Health
Overview of systematic reviews on the health-related effects of government tobacco control policies
Steven J. Hoffman, Charlie Tan
BMC Public Health
Smoking prevention: what benefits are indicated by a pilot school drug education programme that focuses on minimising harm?
Johanna Mitchell, Richard Midford, Helen Cahill, Robyn Ramsden, Leanne Lester, Lynne Venning, Gillian Davenport, Michelle Pose, Bernadette Murphy
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education
Strategies for Tobacco Control in India: A Systematic Review
Ailsa J. McKay, Raju K. K. Patel, Azeem Majeed, Lion Shahab
Meta-Analysis on the Effects of the Smoke-Free Class Competition on Smoking Prevention in Adolescents
Barbara Isensee, Reiner Hanewinkel
European Addiction Research
Smoking Prevention for Students: Findings From a Three-Year Program of Integrated Harm Minimization School Drug Education
Richard Midford, Helen Cahill, Leanne Lester, David R. Foxcroft, Robyn Ramsden, Lynne Venning
Substance Use & Misuse
Attitudes toward tobacco among low-income Hispanic adolescents: Implications for prevention
Denise Vasquez, Mika Cohen Jones, Louis D. Brown
Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
The effect of smokeless tobacco use and exposure to cigarette promotions on smoking intention among youths in Ghana
Eniola Olubukola Cadmus, Olalekan A. Ayo-Yusuf, Rahman Shiri
Cogent Medicine
Cigarette smoking and school culture: An analysis of smoking at a high school according to different variables
Cem Gercek, E. Masal, I. Önder, H. Çalişkan, S. Beşoluk
SHS Web of Conferences
Langzeiteffekte des Präventionsprogramms Klasse2000 auf den Substanzkonsum
Barbara Isensee, Karin Maruska, Reiner Hanewinkel
A Scoping Review of Foci, Trends, and Gaps in Reviews of Tobacco Control Research
Gayle Halas, Annette SH Schultz, Janet Rothney, Pamela Wener, Maxine Holmqvist, Benita Cohen, Leanne Kosowan, Jennifer E Enns, Alan Katz
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Defining Prevention Science
Hanno Petras, Zili Sloboda
Preventive Mental Health at School
Gayle Macklem
Preventive Mental Health at School
Gayle Macklem
Was limitiert schulische Tabakprävention?
Peter-Michael Sack, Jenny Hampel, Sonja Bröning, Kay Petersen, Birte Andritzky, Birte Andritzky, Eckart Laack, Rainer Thomasius
Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung
Implementation of a school-based tobacco prevention program for adolescent females in Saudi Arabia guided by the theory of planned behavior
Agili Al, Hamisu Salihu
Population Medicine
School-Based Tobacco Control and Smoking in Adolescents: Evidence from Multilevel Analyses
Seong Kim, Myungwha Jang, Seunghyun Yoo, Jung JeKarl, Joo Chung, Sung-il Cho
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health