RESEARCH PAPER
The influence of occupational stress factors on the nicotine dependence: a cross sectional study
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR), Faculty of Human Science and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
2
Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine, private University of Witten/Herdecke, Herdecke, Germany
3
Institute for Psychology, University of Education Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
4
LIMES (Life and Medical Sciences Bonn), Program Unit Molecular Immune & Cell Biology, Functional Genomics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
5
Hospital Merheim, chest clinic, Cologne, Germany
6
First Department of Internal Medicine, Molecular Tumour Biology and Tumour Immunology & Centre for Integrated Oncology (CIO), University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Anna Schmidt   

Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR), Faculty of Human Science and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Eupener Strasse 129, Cologne 50933, Germany
Publish date: 2010-04-13
 
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2010;8(April):6
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Objective:
This study analyses the association between occupational stress factors and nicotine dependence. Our hypothesis is that occupational stress factors increase nicotine dependence.

Methods:
Data were taken from the Cologne Smoking Study, a case-control study that examines which genetic/psychosocial factors lead to a higher risk for smokers to suffer from cardiac infarction, lung cancer and/or to become addicted to nicotine. Our sample consisted of N = 197 currently smoking and employed participants. Nicotine dependence was measured using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). The extent of the stress factors experienced at work was assessed using the Effort-Reward Imbalance scale (ERI). Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis.

Results:
Contrary to our hypothesis, the results show that occupational stress factors are actually associated with lower levels of nicotine dependence (N = 197; adjusted OR = 0.439; p = .059).

Conclusions:
One possible explanation for the study's findings is that the participants have a heavy workload and can only smoke in their spare time. Another reason may be workplace smoking bans. Furthermore, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence is unable to examine nicotine dependence during working hours.

 
REFERENCES (29)
1.
Inoue T: Cigarette smoking as a risk factor of coronary artery disease and its effects on platelet function. Tobacco induces diseases. 2004, 2: 27-33.
 
2.
WHO: World Health Statistics 2008. Part 1. Ten highlights in health statistics. 2008.
 
3.
Batra V, Patkar AA, Berrettini WH, Weinstein SP, Leone FT: The genetic determinants of smoking. Chest. 2003, 123: 1730-1739. 10.1378/chest.123.5.1730.
 
4.
Hourani LL, Yuan H, Bray RM, Vincus AA: Psychosocial correlates of nicotine dependence among men and women in the U.S. Naval Services. Addictive Behaviors. 1999, 24: 521-536. 10.1016/S0306-4603(98)00105-1.
 
5.
Schumann A, Hapke U, Rumpf HJ, Meyer C, John U: Gesundheitsverhalten von Rauchern - Ergebnisse der TACOS-Studie. [Health behavior of smokers - results of the TACOS (Transitions in Alcohol Consumption and Smoking) Study]. Gesundheitswesen. 2000, 62: 275-281. 10.1055/s-2000-10975.
 
6.
Schwarzer R: Psychologie des Gesundheitsverhaltens. [The Psychology of Health Behaviour]. 1996, Göttingen: Hogrefe, 326-2.
 
7.
Kouvonen A, Kivimäki M, Virtanen M, Pentti J, Vahtera J: Work stress, smoking status, and smoking intensity: an observational study of 46,190 employees. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2005, 59: 63-69. 10.1136/jech.2004.019752.
 
8.
Batra A: Tabakabhängigkeit. Biologische und psychosoziale Entstehungsmöglichkeiten und Therapiemöglichkeiten. [Biological and psychosocial determinants of tobacco dependence and potential treatment options.]. 2000, Darmstadt: Steinkopff, 21.
 
9.
Rödel A, Siegrist J, Hessel A, Brähler E: Fragebogen zur Messung beruflicher Gratifikationskrisen. Psychometrische Testung an einer repräsentativen deutschen Stichprobe. [Psychometric test of the questionnaire measuring effort-reward imbalance at work in a representative German sample.]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie. 2004, 25: 277-238. 10.1024/0170-1789.25.4.227.
 
10.
Siegrist J, Rödel A: Work stress and health risk behavior. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2006, 32: 473-481.
 
11.
Siegrist J, Starke D, Chandola T, Godin I, Marmot M, Niedhammer I, Peter R: The measurement of effort-reward imbalance at work: European comparisons. Social Science & Medicine. 2004, 58: 1483-1499. 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00351-4.
 
12.
Peter R: Berufliche Gratifikationskrisen und Gesundheit [Effort-reward imbalance and ill health]. Physiotherapeut. 2002, 47: 386-398.
 
13.
Niedhammer I, Tek ML, Starke D, Siegrist J: Effort-reward imbalance model and self-reported health: cross-sectional and prospective findings from the GAZEL cohort. Social Science & Medicine. 2004, 58: 1531-1541. 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00346-0.
 
14.
John U, Riedel J, Rumpf H-J, Hapke U, Meyer C: Associations of perceived work strain with nicotine dependence in a community sample. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2006, 63: 207-11. 10.1136/oem.2005.020966.
 
15.
Kuper H, Singh-Manoux A, Siegrist J, Marmot M: When reciprocity fails: effort- reward imbalance in relation to coronary heart disease and health functioning within the Withehall II study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002, 59: 777-784. 10.1136/oem.59.11.777.
 
16.
Peretti-Watel P, Constance J, Seror V, Beck F: Working Conditions, Job Dissatisfaction and Smoking Behaviours among French Clerks and Manual Workers. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2009, 51: 343-350. 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31819464fe.
 
17.
Ota A, Yasuda N, Okamoto Y, Kobayashi Y, Sugihara Y, Koda S, Kawakami N, Ohara H: Relationship of job stress with nicotine dependence of smokers - a cross sectional study of female nurses in a general hospital. Journal of Occupational Health. 2004, 46: 220-224. 10.1539/joh.46.220.
 
18.
Radzius A, Gallo JJ, Epstein DH, Gorelick DA, Cadet JL, Uhl GE, Moolchan ET: A factor analysis of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2003, 5: 255-260. 10.1080/1462220031000073289.
 
19.
Sledjeski EM, Dierker LC, Costello D, Shiffman S, Donny E, Flay BR: Predictive validity of four nicotine dependence measures in a college sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2007, 87: 10-19. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.07.005.
 
20.
Tsutsumi A, Kayaba K, Nagami M, Miki A, Kawano YO, Odagiri Y, Shimomitsu T: The Effort-reward Imbalance Model: Experience in Japanese working population. Journal of Occupational Health. 2002, 44: 398-407. 10.1539/joh.44.398.
 
21.
Solomon C, Poole J, Palmer KT, Coggon D: Health-related job loss: findings from a community-based survey. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2007, 64: 144-149.
 
22.
Etter JF, Vu Duc T, Perneger TV: Validity of the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and of the heaviness of smoking index among relatively light smokers. Addiction. 1999, 94: 269-281. 10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.94226910.x.
 
23.
Blay SL, Batista AD, Andreoli SB, Gastal FL: The relationship between religiosity and tobacco, alcohol use, and depression in an elderly community population. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2008, 16: 934-943. 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181871392.
 
24.
Koenig HG, George LK, Cohen HJ, Hays JC, Larson DB, Blazer DG: The relationship between religious activities and cigarette smoking in older adults. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 1998, 28: 189-213.
 
25.
Finney Rutten LJ, Augustson EM, Moser RP, Burke Beckjord E, Hesse BW: Smoking knowledge and behaviour in the United States: Sociodemographic, smoking status, and geographic patterns. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008, 10: 1559-1570. 10.1080/14622200802325873.
 
26.
Broms U, Silventoinen K, Lahelma E, Koskenvuo M, Kaprio J: Smoking cessation by socioeconomic status and marital status: The contribution of smoking behaviour and family background. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2003, 6: 447-455. 10.1080/14622200410001696637.
 
27.
Lander B: Anwesenheitseffekte im Wandel. Eine Sekundäranalyse zur Anwesenheit des Partners im Interview anhand des ALLBUS 1980 bis 1998. [Changes in the effects of the presence of partners at interviews. A secondary analysis using data from ALLBUS 1980-1998]. Zeitschrift für Soziologie. 2000, 29: 227-239.
 
28.
Stein LA, Colby SM, O'Leary TA, Monti PM, Rohsenow DJ, Spirito A, Riggs S, Barnett NP: Response distortion in adolescents who smoke: a pilot study. Journal of Drug Education. 2002, 32: 271-86. 10.2190/GL7E-B8MV-P9NH-KCVV.
 
29.
Muche R: Die logistische Regression - ein vielseitiges Analyseinstrument rehabilitationswissenschaftlicher Forschung. [Logistic regression: a useful tool in rehabilitation research]. Rehabilitation. 2007, 46: 1-7. 10.1055/s-2007-958530.
 
 
CITATIONS (8):
1.
The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study
Anna Schmidt, Julia Jung, Nicole Ernstmann, Elke Driller, Melanie Neumann, Andrea Staratschek-Jox, Christian Schneider, Jürgen Wolf, Holger Pfaff
BMC Research Notes
 
2.
A study on the relationship between job stress and nicotine dependence in Korean workers
Seung Rak Son, Byeong Moo Choe, Seong Hwan Kim, Young Seoub Hong, Byoung Gwon Kim
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
 
3.
Comparing Stress Perception and Leisure Type Preference between South Korean Smoking and Nonsmoking Casino Employees
Tae Kyung Lee, Choong-Ki Lee, Hye-Mi Lee, Howard J. Shaffer
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
 
4.
Work-related self-report measures and assessment tools in cancer survivorship: A systematic literature review
Natalie Ladehoff, Kirsten Sturm, Anja Mehnert
Disability and Rehabilitation
 
5.
Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers
Luca Falzone, Andrea Marconi, Carla Loreto, Sabrina Franco, Demetrios A. Spandidos, Massimo Libra
Molecular Medicine Reports
 
6.
Work Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Fishermen With a Smoking Habit: A Mediator Role of Nicotine Dependence and Possible Moderator Role of Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal
Hongjuan Jiang, Sailan Li, Juan Yang
Frontiers in Psychology
 
7.
The association between critical life events, sociodemographic data and physical activity in the development of myocardial infarction in smokers and ex-smokers
Anna Schmidt, Elke Driller, Melanie Neumann, Julia Jung, Andrea Staratschek-Jox, Christian Schneider, Jürgen Wolf, Holger Pfaff
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine
 
8.
Work-Associated Stress and Nicotine Dependence among Law Enforcement Personnel in Mangalore, India
R Priyanka, Ashwini Rao, Gururaghavendran Rajesh, Ramya Shenoy, BH Mithun Pai
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
 
eISSN:1617-9625