SHORT REPORT
The association between occupational secondhand smoke exposure and life satisfaction among adults in the European Union
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
2
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
3
Clinic of Social and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
4
European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP), Brussels, Belgium
5
Center for Health Services Research, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Filippos T. Filippidis   

Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, 310 Reynolds Building, St. Dunstan’s Road, London W6 8RP, United Kingdom
Publish date: 2017-03-23
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2017;15(March):19
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Despite existing legislation, a large proportion of the European Union (EU) population is exposed to occupational secondhand smoke (SHS). The aim of this study was to explore associations between occupational exposure to SHS and self-reported life satisfaction.

Methods:
We analysed data collected through the Eurobarometer survey (wave 82.4) from n = 11,788 individuals working in indoor spaces. The sample was representative of the population of the 28 EU member states. We fitted a multilevel logistic regression model adjusting for smoking, age, gender, occupation, area of residence, education, difficulty paying bills, marital status and social class.

Results:
27.5% of those working indoors reported at least some occupational exposure to SHS. People exposed to occupational SHS were less likely to report that they were satisfied with the life they lead (adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.60-0.87). The effect of occupational exposure on life satisfaction did not differ by smoking status, with all interaction terms between smoking status and occupational exposure to SHS not statistically significant.

Conclusions:
Exposure to SHS at the workplace does not only have negative consequences on physical health, but it can also impact life satisfaction of smokers and non-smokers. Our findings highlight the need for stricter enforcement of smokefree environments at the workplace in the EU.

 
REFERENCES (20)
1.
Collaborators GBDRF, Forouzanfar MH, Alexander L, Anderson HR, Bachman VF, et al. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015;386:2287–323.
 
2.
World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global tobacco Epidemic 2015: Raising taxes on tobacco. 2015.
 
3.
Filippidis FT, Agaku IT, Girvalaki C, Jimenez-Ruiz C, Ward B, et al. Relationship of secondhand smoke exposure with sociodemographic factors and smokefree legislation in the European Union. Eur J Public Health. 2016;26:344–9.
 
4.
World Health Organisation. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. 2013. http://www.who.int/fctc/signat.... Accessed 25 Aug 2016.
 
5.
Hamer M, Stamatakis E, Batty GD. Objectively assessed secondhand smoke exposure and mental health in adults: cross-sectional and prospective evidence from the Scottish Health Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:850–5.
 
6.
Nakata A, Takahashi M, Ikeda T, Hojou M, Nigam JA, et al. Active and passive smoking and depression among Japanese workers. Prev Med. 2008;46:451–6.
 
7.
Jung SJ, Shin A, Kang D. Active smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and their relationship to depressive symptoms in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES). BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1053.
 
8.
Kim SJ, Han KT, Lee SY, Chun SY, Park EC. Is secondhand smoke associated with stress in smokers and non-smokers? BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1249.
 
9.
Ye X, Li L, Gao Y, Zhou S, Yang Y, et al. Dose–response relations between second-hand smoke exposure and depressive symptoms among middleaged women. Psychiatry Res. 2015;229:533–8.
 
10.
Fergusson DM, McLeod GF, Horwood LJ, Swain NR, Chapple S, et al. Life satisfaction and mental health problems (18 to 35 years). Psychol Med. 2015;45:2427–36.
 
11.
Lacruz ME, Emeny RT, Baumert J, Ladwig KH. Prospective association between self-reported life satisfaction and mortality: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg S3 survey cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:579.
 
12.
Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Honkanen R, Viinamaki H, Heikkila K, Kaprio J, et al. Self-reported life satisfaction and 20-year mortality in healthy Finnish adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152:983–91.
 
13.
European Commission. Eurobarometer 82.4, November-December 2014. GESIS Data Archive: ZA5933, dataset version 5.0.0 (2014). Brussels: TNS OPINION & SOCIAL; 2014.
 
14.
Joossens LR M. The Tobacco Control Scale 2013 in Europe. 2013.
 
15.
Jefferis BJ, Lowe GD, Welsh P, Rumley A, Lawlor DA, et al. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with circulating markers of inflammation and endothelial function in adult men and women. Atherosclerosis. 2010;208:550–6.
 
16.
Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH). Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. 2008.
 
17.
Halpern MT, Shikiar R, Rentz AM, Khan ZM. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity. Tob Control. 2001;10:233–8.
 
18.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006.
 
19.
Arheart KL, Lee DJ, Fleming LE, LeBlanc WG, Dietz NA, et al. Accuracy of self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in the US workforce: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:1414–20.
 
20.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development, OECD Better Life Index. http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.... Accessed 25 Aug 2016.
 
eISSN:1617-9625