The Influence of Tobacco Smoking on the Onset of Periodontitis in Young Persons
More details
Hide details
Division of Restorative Dentistry (Periodontics), School of Clinical Dentistry, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Brian H. Mullally   

Brian H. Mullally, Division of Restorative Dentistry (Periodontics), School of Clinical Dentistry, Queen’s University, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BP Northern Ireland
Publication date: 2004-06-15
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2004;2(June):53
This paper reviews the evidence for cigarette smoking as a risk factor for the development of severe destructive periodontal disease in young adults. A high prevalence of cigarette smoking has been identified among young individuals with aggressive periodontitis and tobacco usage increases the risk of periodontal destruction most significantly in young populations. The effect appears to be dose related and is independent of levels of plaque accumulation. Young smokers have more alveolar bone loss and attachment loss than non smoking equivalents. Prolonged and heavy smoking can reduce gingival bleeding and therefore mask the clinical marker of bleeding on probing often used by dentists to monitor periodontal health. This has implications for potential misdiagnosis and failure to detect periodontitis at an early stage. Nicotine metabolites concentrate in the periodontal tissues and can have local effects as well as the potential to affect the systemic host response. Dentists are well placed to assess the smoking status of their young patients and have a role to play in the delivery of smoking cessation advice especially as it pertains to periodontal health. In this way the dental profession can also make a significant contribution to the general health and well being of our youth and future generations.
Pöllänen MT, Salonen JI, Uitto V-J: Structure and function of the tooth-epithelial interface in health and disease. Periodontology 2000. 2003, 31: 12-31. 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2003.03102.x.
Kinane DF: Periodontal disease in children and adolescents: introduction and classification. Periodontology 2000. 2001, 26: 7-15. 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2001.2260101.x.
Burdell J: Tobacco: Its Use and Abuse. 1848, Boston: Fowler & Wells.
Pindborg JJ: Tobacco and gingivitis II correlation between consumption of tobacco, ulceromembranous gingivitis and calculus. Journal of Dental Research. 1949, 28: 460-463.
Hujoel P, Bergström J, del Aguila MA, De Rouen TA: A hidden periodontitis epidemic during the 20th Century?. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 2003, 31: 1-6. 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2003.00061.x.
Armitage GC: Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Annals of Periodontology. 1999, 4 (1): 1-6. 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.1.
Saxby M: Prevalence of juvenile periodontitis in a British school population. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 1984, 12: 185-187. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1984.tb01435.x.
Kronauer E, Borsa G, Lang NP: Prevalence of incipient juvenile periodontitis at age 16 years in Switzerland. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1986, 13: 103-108. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1986.tb01441.x.
Löe H, Brown LJ: Early onset periodontitis in the United States of America. Journal of Periodontology. 1991, 62: 608-616.
Harley AF, Floyd PD: Prevalence of juvenile periodontitis in schoolchildren in Lagos, Nigeria. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 1988, 16: 299-301. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1988.tb01780.x.
Arowojolu MO, Nwokorie CU: Juvenile periodontitis in Ibadan, Nigeria. East Africa Medical Journal. 1997, 74: 372-375.
Albandar JM, Muranga MB, Rams TE: Prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in school attendees in Uganda. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2002, 29: 201-10.1034/j.1600-051x.2002.290303.x.
Hodge PJ, Teague PW, Wright AF, Kinane DF: Clinical and genetic analysis of a large North European Caucasian family affected by early-onset periodontitis. Journal of Dental Research. 2000, 79: 857-863. 10.1177/00220345000790031201.
Bergstrom J, Eliasson S, Preber H: Cigarette smoking and periodontal bone loss. Journal of Periodontology. 1991, 62: 242-246.
Bergstrom J, Floderus-Myrhed B: Co-twin control study of the relationship between smoking and some periodontal disease factors. Community Dentistry and Dental Oral Epidemiology. 1983, 11: 113-116. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1983.tb01367.x.
Preber H, Bergstrom J: Occurrence of gingival bleeding in smoker and nonsmoker patients. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 1985, 43: 315-320. 10.3109/00016358509046515.
Feldman RS, Alman JE, Chauncey HH: Periodontal disease indexes and tobacco smoking in healthy aging men. Gerodontics. 1987, 3: 43-46.
Holmes LG: Effects of smoking and/or vitamin on C crevicular fluid flow in clinically healthy gingiva. Quintessence International. 1990, 21: 191-195.
McLaughlin WS, Lovat FM, Macgregor ID, Kelly PJ: The immediate effects of smoking on gingival fluid flow. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1993, 20: 448-51. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1993.tb00387.x.
Bergstrom J, Preber H: Cigarette smoking in patients referred for periodontal treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. 1986, 94: 102-108.
Linden GJ, Mullally BH: Cigarette smoking and periodontal destruction in young adults. Journal of Periodontology. 1994, 65: 718-723.
Bergström J, Eliasson S: Cigarette smoking and alveolar bone height in subjects with a high standard of oral hygiene. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1987, 14: 466-469. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1987.tb02253.x.
Müller H-P, Stadermann S, Heinecke A: Longitudinal association between plaque and gingival bleeding in smokers and non-smokers. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2002, 29: 287-294. 10.1034/j.1600-051X.2002.290403.x.
Clarke NG, Shepherd BC, Hirsch RS: The effects of intra-arterial epinephrine and nicotine on gingival circulation. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology. 1981, 52: 577-582. 10.1016/0030-4220(81)90071-2.
Baab DA, Öberg PA: The effect of cigarette smoking on gingival blood flow in humans. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1987, 14: 418-424. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1987.tb01547.x.
Palmer RM, Scott DA, Meekin TN, Odell EW, Wilson RF: Potential mechanisms of susceptibility to periodontitis in tobacco smokers. Journal of Periodontal Research. 1999, 34: 363-369. 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1999.tb02267.x.
Powell JT: Vascular damage from smoking: Disease mechanisms at the arterial wall. Vascular Medicine. 1998, 3: 21-28.
Hanioka T, Tanaka M, Ojima M, Takaya K, Mutsumori Y, Shizukuishi S: Oxygen sufficiency in the gingiva of smokers and non-smokers with periodontal disease. Journal of Periodontology. 2000, 71: 1846-1852. 10.1902/jop.2000.71.12.1846.
Mahuca G, Rosales I, Lacalle JR, Mahuca C, Bullon P: Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal status of healthy young adults. Journal of Periodontology. 2000, 71: 73-78. 10.1902/jop.2000.71.1.73.
Schenkein HA, Gunsolley JC, Koertge TE, Schenkein JG, Tew JG: Smoking and its effects on early-onset periodontitis. Journal of American Dental Association. 1995, 126: 1107-13.
Mullally BH, Breen B, Linden GJ: Smoking and patterns of bone loss in Early-onset periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology. 1999, 70: 394-401. 10.1902/jop.1999.70.4.394.
Machtei EE, Christersson LA, Grossi SG, Dunford R, Zambon JJ, Genco RJ: Clinical criteria for the definition of "established periodontitis". Journal of Periodontology. 1992, 63: 206-14.
Pihlstrom BL: Periodontal risk assessment, diagnosis and treatment planning. Periodontology 2000. 2001, 25: 37-58. 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2001.22250104.x.
Kamma JJ, Nakou M, Baehni PC: Clinical and microbiological characteristics of smokers with early onset periodontitis. Journal of Periodontal Research. 1999, 34: 25-33. 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1999.tb02218.x.
Tangada SD, Califano JV, Nakashima K, Quinn SM, Zhang JB, Gunsolley JC, Schenkein HA, Tew JG: The effect of smoking on serum IgG2 reactive with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in early onset periodontitis patients. Journal of Periodontology. 1997, 68: 842-850.
Quinn SM, Zhang JB, Gunsolley JC, Schenkein JG, Schenkein HA, Tew JG: Influence of smoking and race on immunoglobulin G subclass concentrations in early-onset periodontitis. Infection and Immunity. 1996, 64: 2500-2505.
Zambon JJ, Grossi S, Machtei EE, Ho AW, Dunford R, Genco RJ: Cigarette smoking increases the risk for subgingival infection with periodontal pathogens. Journal of Periodontology. 1996, 67 (suppl): 1050-1054.
Lopez R, Fernandez O, Jara G, Baelum V: Epidemiology of attachment loss in Chilean adolescents. Journal of Periodontology. 2001, 37: 1666-1674. 10.1902/jop.2001.72.12.1666.
Lopez R, Fernandez O, Jara G, Baelum V: Epidemiology of necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions in adolescents. Journal of Periodontal Research. 2002, 37: 439-444. 10.1034/j.1600-0765.2002.01377.x.
Mullally BH, Dace B, Shelburne CE, Wolff LF, Coulter WA: Prevalence of periodontal pathogens in localized and generalized forms of early-onset periodontitis. Journal of Periodontal Research. 2000, 35: 232-241. 10.1034/j.1600-0765.2000.035004232.x.
Holm G: Smoking as an additional risk for tooth loss. Journal of Periodontology. 1994, 65: 996-1001.
Calsina G, Ramon J-M, Echeverria J-J: Effects of smoking on periodontal tissues. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2002, 29: 771-776. 10.1034/j.1600-051X.2002.290815.x.
Hashim R, Thomson WM, Pack ARC: Smoking in adolescence as a predictor of early loss of periodontal attachment. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 2001, 29 (2): 130-135. 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2001.290207.x.
Arno A, Schei O, Lövdal A, Waerhaug J: Alveolar bone loss as a function of tobacco consumption. Acta Odontologica Scandinavia. 1959, 17: 3-10. 10.3109/00016355909011228.
Haffajee AD, Socransky SS: Relationship of cigarette smoking to attachment level profiles. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2001, 28: 283-295. 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028004283.x.
Preber H, Bergstrom J: The effect of non-surgical treatment on periodontal pockets in smokers and non-smokers. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1986, 13: 319-323. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1986.tb02229.x.
Axelsson P, Paulander J, Lindhe J: Relationship between smoking and disease status in 35-, 50-, 65- and 75 year-old individuals. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1998, 25: 297-305. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02444.x.
Hollenbach KA, Barret-Connor E, Edelstein SL, Holbrook T: Cigarette smoking and bone mineral density in older men and women. American Journal of Public Health. 1993, 83: 1265-1270. 10.2105/AJPH.83.9.1265.
Mullally BH, Linden GJ: Molar furcation involvement associated with cigarette smoking in periodontal referrals. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1996, 23: 658-661. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1996.tb00590.x.
Renkema TE, Postma DS, Noordhoek JA, Sluiter HJ, Kauffman HF: Influence of in vivo prednisolone on increased in vitro O2 generation by neutrophils in emphysema. European Respiration. 1993, 6: 90-95.
Hind CR, Joyce H, Tennent GA, Pepys MB, Pride NB: Plasma leukocyte elastase concentrations in smokers. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1991, 44: 232-235. 10.1136/jcp.44.3.232.
Alavi AL, Palmer RM, Odell EW, Coward PY, Wilson RF: Elastase in gingival crevicular fluid from smokers and non-smokers with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. Oral Diseases. 1995, 3: 110-114.
Pauletto NC, Liede K, Nieminen A, Larjava H, Uitto V-J: Effect of Cigarette smoking on oral elastase activity in adult periodontitis patients. Journal of Periodontology. 2000, 71: 58-62. 10.1902/jop.2000.71.1.58.
Offenbacher S: Periodontal diseases: Pathogenesis. Annals of Periodontology. 1996, 1: 821-878.
Mariggio MA, Guida L, Laforgia A, Santacroce R, Curci E, Montemurro P, Fumarulo R: Nicotine effects on polymorphonuclear cell apoptosis and lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte functions. A possible role in periodontal disease?. Journal of Periodontal Research. 2001, 36: 32-39. 10.1034/j.1600-0765.2001.00301.x.
Pabst MJ, Pabst KM, Collier JA: Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte defensive functions by nicotine. Journal of Periodontology. 1995, 66: 1047-1055.
Ginns LC, Goldstein PD, Miller LG, Burton RC, Gillick L, Colvin RB, Kung PC, Hurwitz C, Kazemi H: T lymphocyte subsets in smoking and lung cancer: Analysis of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. American Review of Respiratory Disease. 1982, 126: 265-269.
Costabel U, Bross KJ, Reuter C, Ruhle KH, Matthys H: Alterations in T-cell subsets in cigarette smokers. A phenotypic analysis of bronchoalveolar and blood lymphocytes. Chest. 1986, 90: 39-44. 10.1378/chest.90.1.39.
Barbour SE, Nakashima K, Zhang JB, Tangada S, Hahn CL, Schenkein HA, Tew JG: Tobacco and smoking: environmental factors that modify the host response (immune system) and have an impact on periodontal health. Critical Reviews Oral Biology and Medicine. 1997, 8: 437-460. 10.1177/10454411970080040501.
Ebersole JL: Systemic humoral immune responses in periodontal disease. Critical Reviews Oral Biology and Medicine. 1990, 1: 283-331.
Schenkein HA, Van Dyke TE: Early-onset periodontitis: systemic aspects of etiology and pathogenesis. Periodontology 2000. 1994, 6: 7-25. 10.1111/j.1600-0757.1994.tb00023.x.
Albandar JM, Denardin A, Adesanya MR, Diehl SR, Winn DM: Associations between serum antibody levels to periodontal pathogens and early onset periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology. 2001, 72: 1463-1469. 10.1902/jop.2001.72.11.1463.
Lu H, Wang M, Gunsolley JC, Shenkein HA, Tew JG: Serum immunoglobulin G subclass concentrations in periodontally healthy and diseased individuals. Infection and Immunity. 1994, 62: 1677-1682.
Quinn SM, Zhang JB, Gunsolley JC, Schenkein HA, Tew JG: The influence of smoking and race on adult periodontitis and serum IgG2 levels. Journal of Periodontology. 1998, 69: 171-177.
Albandar JM, Denardin A, Adesanya MR, Winn DM, Diehl SR: Associations of serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, IgM and interleukin-1_ with early onset periodontitis classification and race. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2002, 29: 421-426. 10.1034/j.1600-051X.2002.290506.x.
Boström L, Linder LE, Bergstrom J: Influence of smoking on the outcome of periodontal surgery. A 5-year follow-up. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1998, 25: 194-201. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02428.x.
Heasman PA, Lauffart BL, Preshaw PM: Crevicular fluid Prostaglandin E2 levels in periodontal-resistant and periodontal-susceptible adults. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1998, 25: 1003-1007. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1998.tb02405.x.
Shirodaria S, Smith J, Mc Kay IJ, Kennett CN, Hughes FJ: Polymorphisms in the IL-A gene are correlated with levels of interleukin-1_ protein in gingival crevicular fluid of teeth with severe periodontal disease. Journal of Dental Research. 2000, 79: 1864-1869. 10.1177/00220345000790110801.
Nguyen L, Dewhirst FE, Hauschka PV, Staschenko P: Interleukin 1_ stimulates bone resorption and inhibits bone formation in vivo. Lymphokine Cytokine Research. 1991, 10: 15-21.
Birkedal-Hansen H: Role of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in tissue destruction. Journal of Periodontal Research. 1993, 28: 500-510. 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1993.tb02113.x.
Kornman KS, Di Giovine GS: Genetic variation in cytokine expression: a risk factor for severity of adult periodontal disease. Annals of Periodontology. 1998, 3: 327-338.
Diehl SR, Wang Y, Brooks CN, Burmeister JA, Califano JV, Wang S, Schenkein HA: Linkage disequilibrium of interleukin-1 genetic polymorphisms with early-onset periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology. 1999, 70: 418-430. 10.1902/jop.1999.70.4.418.
Boström L, Linder LE, Bergstrom J: Smoking and crevicular fluid levels of IL-6 and TNF_ in periodontal disease. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1999, 26: 352-357. 10.1034/j.1600-051X.1999.260604.x.
Kinane DF, Chestnutt IG: Smoking and Periodontal disease. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine. 2000, 11: 356-365. 10.1177/10454411000110030501.
Rezevandi K, Palmer RM, Odell EW, Scott DA, Wilson RF: Expression of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in gingival tissues of smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2002, 31: 59-64.
Haffajee AD, Socransky SS: Relationship of cigarette smoking to the subgingival microbiota. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2001, 28: 377-388. 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028005377.x.
Darby IB, Hodge PJ, Riggio MP, Kinane DF: Microbial comparison of smoker and non-smoker adult and early-onset periodontitis patients by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2000, 27: 417-424. 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2000.027006417.x.
Ah MKB, Johnson GK, Kaldahl KWB, Patil KD, Kalkwarf KL: The effect of smoking on the response to periodontal therapy. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1994, 21: 91-97. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1994.tb00285.x.
Kaldahl WB, Johnson GK, Patil KD, Kalkwarf KL: Levels of cigarette consumption and response to periodontal therapy. Journal of Periodontology. 1996, 67: 675-681.
Kamma JJ, Baehni PC: Five-year maintenance foolow-up of early-onset periodontitis patients. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2003, 30: 562-72. 10.1034/j.1600-051X.2003.00289.x.
McGuire MK, Nunn ME: Prognosis versus actual outcome. IV. The effectiveness of clinical parameters and Il-1 genotype in accurately predicting prognoses and tooth survival. Journal of Periodontology. 1999, 70: 394-401. 10.1902/jop.1999.70.1.49.
Preber H, Linder L, Bergstrom J: Periodontal healing and periodontopathogenic microflora in smokers and nonsmokers. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1995, 22: 946-952. 10.1111/j.1600-051X.1995.tb01800.x.
Mooney J, Hodge PJ, Kinane DF: Humoral immune response in early-onset periodontitis. Journal of Periodontal Research. 2001, 36: 227-232. 10.1034/j.1600-0765.2001.036004227.x.
Mosely LH, Finseth F, Goody M: Nicotine and its effect on wound healing. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1978, 61: 570-575. 10.1097/00006534-197804000-00013.
Tipton DA, Dabbous MK: Effects of nicotine on proliferation and extracellular matrix production of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Journal of Periodontology. 1995, 66: 1056-1064.
Hanes PJ, Schuster GS, Lubas S: Binding uptake and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts. Journal of Periodontology. 1991, 62: 147-152.
James JA, Sayers NA, Drucker DB, Hull PS: Effects of tobacco products on the attachment and growth of periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Journal of Periodontology. 1999, 70: 518-525. 10.1902/jop.1999.70.5.518.
Bergstrom J, Eliasson S, Dock J: A 10-year prospective study of tobacco smoking and periodontal health. Journal of Periodontology. 2000, 71: 1338-1347. 10.1902/jop.2000.71.8.1338.
Johnston L, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG: Monitoring the future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings. 2002, (NIH Publication No.03-5374, Bethesda MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2003).
Kallio PJ: Health promotion and behavioral approaches in the prevention of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Periodontology 2000. 2001, 26: 135-145. 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2001.2260107.x.
Rikard-Bell G, Donnelly N, Ward J: Preventive dentistry: what do Australian patients endorse and recall of smoking cessation advice by their dentists?. British Dental Journal. 2003, 194: 159-164. 10.1038/sj.bdj.4809899.
Vartiainen E, Paavola M, Mc Alister A, Puska P: Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia youth project. American Journal of Public Health. 1998, 88: 81-85. 10.2105/AJPH.88.1.81.
Meisel P, Siegemund A, Dombrow S, Sawaf H, Fanghaenal J, Kocher T: Smoking and polymorphisms of the Interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL-1_, IL-1_, and IL-1RN) in patients with periodontal disease. Journal of Periodontology. 2002, 73: 27-32. 10.1902/jop.2002.73.1.27.
Fatty Acid Profiles in Smokers with Chronic Periodontitis
N. Buduneli, L. Larsson, B. Bıyıkoğlu, D.E. Renaud, J. Bagaitkar, D.A. Scott
Journal of Dental Research
Mechanisms of action of environmental factors - tobacco smoking
Richard M. Palmer, Ron F. Wilson, Adam S. Hasan, David A. Scott
Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Variation in tobacco use profiles obtained from periodontal maintenance patients
J.P. Picard, D.L. Singer, L. Kells, S. Fisher, L. Lix, D.A. Scott
Journal of Dentistry
Association of periodontitis with the risk of oral leukoplakia
Peter Meisel, Birte Holtfreter, Reiner Biffar, Wolfgang Suemnig, Thomas Kocher
Oral Oncology
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tobacco Use and Its Impact on Oral Health Status of 12 and 15 Year-Old School Children of Chhattisgarh, India
Ram Vinod Tiwari, Jayachandra Megalamanegowdru, Anjali Gupta, Ankush Agrawal, Abhinav Parakh, Sulabh Pagaria, Abhishek Sahu
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Increased local matrix metalloproteinase-8 expression in the periodontal connective tissues of smokers with periodontal disease
K.-Z. Liu, A. Hynes, A. Man, A. Alsagheer, D.L. Singer, D.A. Scott
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease
Progression of attachment loss is strongly associated with presence of the JP2 genotype ofAggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: a prospective cohort study of a young adolescent population
Carola Höglund Åberg, Francis Kwamin, Rolf Claesson, Gunnar Dahlén, Anders Johansson, Dorte Haubek
Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Cytogenetic analysis of gingival epithelial cells, as related to smoking habits and occurrence of periodontal disease
Francesco D’Agostini, Enrico Calcagno, Rosanna T. Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Silvio De Flora, Luciano Cingano
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Effect of Smoking on Langerhans and Dendritic Cells in Patients With Chronic Gingivitis
Giovanna Ribeiro Souto, Takeshi Kato Segundo, Fernando Oliveira Costa, Maria Cássia Ferreira Aguiar, Ricardo Alves Mesquita
Journal of Periodontology
Isolation of Staphylococcus Aureus and Progression of Periodontal Lesions in Aggressive Periodontitis
C. Passariello, A. Lucchese, A. Virga, F. Pera, P. Gigola
European Journal of Inflammation
Tobacco-induced alterations toPorphyromonas gingivalis-host interactions
Juhi Bagaitkar, Lisa R. Williams, Diane E. Renaud, Manjunatha R. Bemakanakere, Mike Martin, David A. Scott, Donald R. Demuth
Environmental Microbiology
Whole cigarette smoke promotes human gingival epithelial cell apoptosis and inhibits cell repair processes
A. Semlali, J. Chakir, J.-P. Goulet, W. Chmielewski, M. Rouabhia
Journal of Periodontal Research
Effects of Whole Cigarette Smoke on Human Gingival Fibroblast Adhesion, Growth, and Migration
Abdelhabib Semlali, Jamila Chakir, Mahmoud Rouabhia
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A
Progression of Periodontal Disease in a Maintenance Population of Smokers and Non-Smokers: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study
Sean Fisher, Leah Kells, Jean-Pierre Picard, Shirley C. Gelskey, David L. Singer, Lisa Lix, David A. Scott
Journal of Periodontology
Smoking and matrix metalloproteinases, neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase in chronic periodontitis
Ö Özçaka, N Bıçakcı, P Pussinen, T Sorsa, T Köse, N Buduneli
Oral Diseases
Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in Korean chronic periodontitis patients
J.-H. Moon, J.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lee
Molecular Oral Microbiology
Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology
A. P. Wood, D. P. Kelly
Fretibacterium sp. human oral taxon 360 is a novel biomarker for periodontitis screening in the Japanese population
Thatawee Khemwong, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yuichi Ikeda, Takanori Matsuura, Takeaki Sudo, Chihiro Kano, Ryo Mikami, Yuichi Izumi, David Ojcius
Quantification of pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival oral biofilm samples collected from cigarette-smokers, individuals using electronic nicotine delivery systems and non-smokers with and without periodontitis
Fahad Aldakheel, Shatha Alduraywish, Poojdev Jhugroo, Chitra Jhugroo, Darshan Divakar
Archives of Oral Biology
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Self-Reported Gingival Bleeding: A Multicenter Study in France
Thomas Veynachter, Valérie Orti, Estelle Moulis, Hélène Rousseau, Nathalie Thilly, Fani Anagnostou, Sylvie Jeanne, Catherine Bisson
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health