Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance
More details
Hide details
Health Care and Promotion Center, Yodogawa Christian Hospital, 2-9-26, Awaji, Higashiyodogawa-ku, Osaka, 533-0032, Japan
Division of Clinical Nutrition and Internal Medicine, Okayama Prefectural University, 111, Kuboki, Soja-city, Okayama, 719-1197, Japan
Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Kyoto Preventive Medical Center, 28, Nishinokyo, Samaryocho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, 604-8091, Japan
Department of Pharmacy, Saiseikai-Nakatsu Hospital, 2-10-39, Shibata, Kita-ku, Osaka, 530-0012, Japan
Department of Oral Health, Kobe Tokiwa Junior College, 2-6-2, Otani-cho, Nagata-ku, Kobe, 653-0838, Japan
Department of Dental Science for Health Promotion, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1- 2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan
Division of Diabetes, Clinical Nutrition and Endocrinology, Kansai Electric Power Hospital, 2-1-7, Fukushima, Fukushima-ku, Osaka, 553-0003, Japan
Department of Internal Medicine, Kyoto Postal Services Agency Hospital, 109,Nishirokkakucho, Rokkaku-street, Shinmachi, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, 604-8798, Japan
Kyoto Institute of Health Science, Karasumaoike-Higashi, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, 604- 0845, Japan
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1, Yakushiji, Shimono-city, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan
Mitsuo Fukushima   

Division of Clinical Nutrition and Internal Medicine, Okayama Prefectural University, 111, Kuboki, Soja-city, Okayama, 719-1197, Japan
Publish date: 2011-11-25
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2011;9(November):12
Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC) counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet.

Subjects and Methods:
One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48) and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94). Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and TNF-a between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1) (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010) and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p < 0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (55 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 1 mg/dl, p = 0.031) as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600) and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index < 600).

Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-a, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p < 0.001; 2166 ± 86 vs. 827 ± 62 pg/ml, p = 0.005) than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437). In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p < 0.001) or light (6829 ± 352/μl, p = 0.001) smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl). There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158).

We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

Laniado-Laborin R: Smoking and choronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Parallel Epidemics of the 21st Century. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009, 6: 209-224. 10.3390/ijerph6010209.
Howard G, Wagenknecht LE, Burke GL, et al: Cigarette smoking and progression of atherosclerosis: The Athrosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. JAMA. 1998, 279: 119-124. 10.1001/jama.279.2.119.
Taylor RG, Woodman G, Clarke SW: Plasma nicotine concentration and white blood cell counts in smokers. Thorax. 1986, 41: 407-408. 10.1136/thx.41.5.407.
Petrescu F, Voican SC, Silosi I: Tumor necrosis factor-α serum levels in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. Int J Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2010, 5: 217-222.
Brinkman GL, Coates EO: The effect of bronchitis, smoking and occupation on ventilation. Ann Respir Dis. 1963, 87: 684-693.
Miyatake N, Wada J, Kawasaki Y, et al: Relationship between metabolic syndrome and cigarette smoking in the Japanese population. Int Med. 2006, 1039-1043.
Seino Y, Nanjo K, Tajima N, et al: Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2010, 1: 212-228.
Seino Y, Nanjo K, Tajima N, et al: Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetology International. 2010, 1: 2-20. 10.1007/s13340-010-0006-7.
Yatagi T, Nagasaka S, Taniguchi A, et al: Hypoadiponecinemia is associated with visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance in Japanese men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2003, 52: 1274-1278. 10.1016/S0026-0495(03)00195-1.
Kawasaki Y, Taniguchi A, Fukushima M, et al: Soluble TNF receptors and albuminuria in non-obese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Horm Metab Res. 2004, 37: 617-621.
Ohya M, Taniguchi A, Fukushima M, et al: Three measures of tumor necrosis factor α activity and insulin resistance in nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolism. 2005, 54: 1297-1301. 10.1016/j.metabol.2005.04.017.
Ohgushi M, Taniguchi A, Fukushima M, et al: Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 is independently associated with pulse wave velocity in nonobese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2007, 56: 571-577. 10.1016/j.metabol.2006.12.007.
Taniguchi A, Fukushima M, Kuroe A, et al: Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolism. 2007, 56: 1099-1103. 10.1016/j.metabol.2006.07.027.
Matthews D, Hosker J, Rudenski A, et al: Homeostasis model assessment: Insulin resistance and B-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985, 28: 412-419. 10.1007/BF00280883.
Fukushima M, Taniguchi A, Sakai M, et al: Homeostasis model assessment as a clinical index of insulin resistance (letter). Diabetes Care. 1999, 22: 1911-1912. 10.2337/diacare.22.11.1911.
Zoppini G, Faccini G, Muggeo M, et al: Elevated plasma levels of soluble receptors of TNF-α and their association with smoking and microvascular complications in young adults with type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001, 186: 3805-3808.
Tsatsanis C, Zacharioudaki V, Androulidaki A, et al: Adiponectin induces TNF-alpha and IL-6 in macrophages and promotes tolerance to itself and other pro-inflammatory stimuli. Biochem Bophys Res Commun. 2005, 335: 1254-1263. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.07.197.
Hector J, Schwarzloh B, Goehring J, et al: TNF-alpha alters visfatin and adiponectin levels in human fat. Horm Metab Res. 2007, 39: 250-255. 10.1055/s-2007-973075.
Komiya H, Mori Y, Yokose T, et al: Smoking as a risk factor for visceral fat accumulation in Japanese men. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2006, 208: 123-132. 10.1620/tjem.208.123.
Bostrom L, Linder LE, Bergstrom J: Smoking and cervicular fluid levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontal. 1999, 26: 352-357. 10.1034/j.1600-051X.1999.260604.x.
Nomura Y, Taniguchi A, Fukushima M, et al: Soluble TNF receptor and periodontal disease in non-obese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (letter). Horm Metab Res. 2006, 38: 688-689. 10.1055/s-2006-954582.
Iwamoto Y, Nishimura F, Soga Y, et al: Antimicrobial periodontal treatment decreases C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not adiponectin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2001, 72: 774-778. 10.1902/jop.2001.72.6.774.
Kern PA, Ranganathan S, Li C, et al: Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in humans obesity and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001, 280: E745-E751.
Rauchhaus M, Doehner W, Francis DP, et al: Plasma cytokine parameters and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 2000, 102: 3060-3067.
Taniguchi A, Fukushima M, Nakai Y, et al: Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is strongly and independently associated with serum homocysteine in nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (letter). Diabetes Care. 2006, 29: 949-950.
Pinto-Sietsma S, Mulder J, Janssen WMT, et al: Smoking is related to albuminuria and abnormal renal function in nondiabetic persons. Ann Intern Med. 2000, 133: 585-591.
Jatoi NA, Jerrard-Dunne P, Feely J, et al: Impact of smoking and smoking cession on arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in hypertension. Hypertension. 2007, 49: 981-985. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.087338.
Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease
Phyllis Gordon, Patty Flanagan
Journal of Vascular Nursing
Association between smoking and the peripheral vestibular disorder: a retrospective cohort study
Masaoki Wada, Taro Takeshima, Yosikazu Nakamura, Shoichiro Nagasaka, Toyomi Kamesaki, Eiji Kajii, Kazuhiko Kotani
Scientific Reports
Identification of gene expression signature for cigarette smoke exposure response—from man to mouse
F Martin, M Talikka, J Hoeng, MC Peitsch
Human & Experimental Toxicology
Evaluation of Bronchiolar and Alveolar Cell Injuries Induced by Short- and Long-term Exposure to Sidestream Smoke
Kun-Young Kwon, Hye-Ra Jung, Ilseon Hwang, Won-Il Choi
Korean Journal of Pathology
Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood
Marthadu Shakeela Begum, Bulle Saradamma, Vaddi Damodara Reddy, Pannuru Padmavathi, Paramahamsa Maturu, Naresh babu Ellutla, Lokesh Thippannagari, N.C. Varadacharyulu
Clinical Nutrition Experimental