RESEARCH PAPER
Smoking in public places in six European countries: Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Survey
 
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1
Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
2
Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
3
University of Barcelona (UB), Barcelona, Spain
4
Cancer Prevention Unit and WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
5
University of Waterloo (UW), Waterloo, Canada
6
European Network on Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP), Brussels, Belgium
7
University of Crete (UoC), Heraklion, Greece
8
University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi (UMF Iasi), Iasi, Romania
9
Aer Pur Romania (APR), Bucharest, Romania
10
Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR), Toronto, Canada
11
Health Promotion Foundation (HPF), Warsaw, Poland
12
Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute ‒ Oncology Center (MSCI), Warsaw, Poland
13
European Observatory of Health Inequalities, President Stanisław Wojciechowski State University of Applied Sciences (PSWZ), Kalisz, Poland
14
Smoking or Health Hungarian Foundation (SHHF), Budapest, Hungary
15
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (UoA), Athens, Greece
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Marcela Fu   

Tobacco Control Unit, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Av. Granvia de L’Hospitalet, 199-203, 08908 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
Publish date: 2019-03-28
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(Suppl 2):A18
KEYWORDS
TOPICS

*Contributed equally

**EUREST-PLUS consortium members: European Network on Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP), Belgium: Constantine I. Vardavas, Andrea Glahn, Christina N. Kyriakos, Dominick Nguyen, Katerina Nikitara, Cornel Radu-Loghin, Polina Starchenko University of Crete (UoC), Greece: Aristidis Tsatsakis, Charis Girvalaki, Chryssi Igoumenaki, Sophia Papadakis, Aikaterini Papathanasaki, Manolis Tzatzarakis, Alexander I. Vardavas Kantar Public (TNS), Belgium: Nicolas Bécuwe, Lavinia Deaconu, Sophie Goudet, Christopher Hanley, Oscar Rivière Smoking or Health Hungarian Foundation (SHHF), Hungary: Tibor Demjén, Judit Kiss, Piroska A. Kovács Catalan Institut of Oncology (ICO); Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Spain: Esteve Fernández, Yolanda Castellano, Marcela Fu, Sarah O. Nogueira, Olena Tigova Kings College London (KCL), United Kingdom: Ann McNeill, Katherine East, Sara C. Hitchman Cancer Prevention Unit and WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Germany: Ute Mons, Sarah Kahnert National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (UoA), Greece: Yannis Tountas, Panagiotis Behrakis, Filippos T. Filippidis, Christina Gratziou, Paraskevi Katsaounou, Theodosia Peleki, Ioanna Petroulia, Chara Tzavara Aer Pur Romania, Romania: Antigona C. Trofor, Marius Eremia, Lucia Lotrean, Florin Mihaltan European Respiratory Society (ERS), Switzerland; Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany: Gernot Rohde, Tamaki Asano, Claudia Cichon, Amy Far, Céline Genton, Melanie Jessner, Linnea Hedman, Christer Janson, Ann Lindberg, Beth Maguire, Sofia Ravara, Valérie Vaccaro, Brian Ward Maastricht University, the Netherlands: Marc Willemsen, Hein de Vries, Karin Hummel, Gera E. Nagelhout Health Promotion Foundation (HPF), Poland: Witold A. Zatoński, Aleksandra Herbeć, Kinga Janik-Koncewicz, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Mateusz Zatoński University of Waterloo (UW); Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Canada: Geoffrey T. Fong, Thomas K. Agar, Pete Driezen, Shannon Gravely, Anne C. K. Quah, Mary E. Thompson
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Surveillance of tobacco consumption in public places is an important measure to evaluate the impact of tobacco control interventions over time. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking as seen by smokers and their smoking behaviour in public places, in six European countries.

Methods:
We used baseline data of the International Tobacco Control Six European countries (ITC 6E) Survey, part of the EUREST-PLUS Project, conducted in 2016 in national representative samples of about 1000 adult smokers aged 18 years and older in Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Spain. For each setting (workplaces, restaurants, bars/pubs and discos) participants were asked whether they had seen someone smoking during their last visit there and whether they too had smoked there. We report the overall and by-country weighted prevalence of seeing someone smoking and the smokers’ own smoking behaviour at each setting. We also assess the relationship between seeing someone smoking and smoking themselves at these settings.

Results:
The prevalence of smoking as seen by smokers was 18.8% at workplaces, with high variability among countries (from 4.7% in Hungary to 40.8% in Greece). Among smokers visiting leisure facilities in the last year, during their last visit 22.7% had seen someone smoking inside restaurants and 12.2% had smoked themselves there, while for bars/pubs the corresponding prevalences were 33.9% and 20.4%, and inside discos 44.8% and 34.8%.

Conclusions:
Smoking is still prevalent at leisure facilities, particularly at discos in Europe, with high variability among countries. More extensive awareness campaigns and stricter enforcement are needed to increase the compliance of smokefree regulations, especially in leisure facilities.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank the ITC Project Team at the University of Waterloo, particularly P Driezen, for their support in ITC dataset management and preliminary data analysis.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors declare that they have no competing interests, financial or otherwise, related to the current work. K Przewoźniak reports grants and personal fees from the Polish League Against Cancer, outside the submitted work. CI Vardavas reports that he is the Strategic Development Editor of TID and that there are no conflicts of interest with this current work. The rest of the authors have also completed and submitted an ICMJE form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest.
FUNDING
The EUREST-PLUS project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 681109 (CIV) and the University of Waterloo (GTF). Additional support was provided to the University of Waterloo by a foundation grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (FDN-148477). GTF was supported by a Senior Investigator Grant from the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research. Authors EF, MF, OT and YC are supported by the Ministry of Universities and Research, Government of Catalonia (2017SGR319). EF was supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Government of Spain (INT16/00211 and INT17/00103), cofunded by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER).
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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