Smoking among hospitalized patients: A multi-hospital cross-sectional study of a widely neglected problem
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Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d’Oncologia-ICOIDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain
School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Nursing Research Unit, Institut Català d’Oncologia-ICO, Barcelona, Spain
Medicine and Health Sciences School, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Department of Nursing Science, Gimbernat School, Barcelona, Spain
Department of Nursing Science, University of Girona, Girona, Spain
Fundació Althaia, Barcelona, Spain
Publish date: 2018-07-30
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(July):34
A comprehensive smoking ban was recently enacted for acute-care hospital campuses in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and patterns of smoking among inpatients before and during hospitalization.

Multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 hospitals in the province of Barcelona, Spain from May 2014 to May 2015. Participants were adults who provided informed consent. The sample size was calculated to be representative of each hospital (prevalence 29.4%, precision ± 5%, error 5%). We approached 1228 subjects, 888 accepted to participate and 170 were replaced (were not available or declined to participate). Final sample comprised 1047 subjects. We used a computer-assisted personal interview system to collect data, including sociodemographic variables and use of tobacco before and during hospitalization. Smoking status was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. We calculated overall tobacco prevalence and investigated associations with participant and center characteristics. We performed multiple polytomous and multilevel logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustments for potential confounders.

In all, 20.5% (95% CI: 18.1–23.0) of hospitalized patients were smokers. Smoking was most common among men (aOR=7.47; 95% CI: 4.88–11.43), young age groups (18–64 years), and individuals with primary or less than primary education (aOR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.44–5.28). Of the smokers, 97.2% were daily consumers of whom 44.9% had medium nicotine dependence. Of all smokers, three-quarters expressed a wish to quit, and one-quarter admitted to consuming tobacco during hospitalization.

Our findings indicate the need to offer smoking cessation interventions among hospitalized patients in all units and service areas, to avoid infringements and increase patient safety, hospital efficiency, and improve clinical outcomes. Hospitalization represents a promising window for initiating smoking interventions addressed to all patients admitted to smoke-free hospitals, specially after applying a smoke-free campus ban.

Cristina Martínez   
Tobacco Control Unit, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Av. Gran Via de L’Hospitalet, 199-203, E-08908 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
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