Relationship between salivary stress biomarker levels and cigarette smoking in healthy young adults: an exploratory analysis
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Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan
Department of General Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan
Nao Suzuki   

Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan
Submission date: 2015-09-06
Acceptance date: 2016-06-01
Publication date: 2016-06-06
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2016;14(June):20
This study investigated the relationships among salivary stress biomarkers, cigarette smoking, and mood states.

The study population comprised 49 healthy sixth-year dental students at Fukuoka Dental College (39 men, 10 women; age, 23–31 years). Lifetime exposure to smoking was calculated using the Brinkman index (BI). Resting saliva samples were collected, and concentrations of cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined. Mood states (tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, confusion, and vigor) over the previous week were assessed using the Profile of Mood States - Brief Japanese Version.

Salivary IL-1β levels were significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (P = 0.044), regardless of the BI or mood state. A significant positive correlation was evident between the TNF-α level and the BI (P = 0.036), and the SIgA level was positively correlated with the BI (P = 0.067) but did not reach statistical significance. In terms of mood states, higher fatigue scores and lower vigor scores were observed in smokers. The TNF-α level and vigor score were negatively correlated (r = –0.229, P = 0.135), but the correlation did not reach statistical significance. However, the SIgA level and fatigue score were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.410, P = 0.005).

The TNF-α and SIgA levels were both positively correlated with the BI. Furthermore, the TNF-α level was negatively correlated with the vigor score, whereas the SIgA level was positively correlated with the fatigue score. Thus, salivary levels of TNF-α and SIgA may be used as biomarkers of mood states in healthy young smokers.

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