Prevalence and factors that influence smokeless tobacco use among adults in pastoralist communities of Borena Zone, Ethiopia: mixed method study
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Negele Borena Health Science College, Oromia Regional State, Negele Borena, Ethiopia
College of Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
College of Health Sciences, Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Edao Sinba Etu   

Negele Borena Health Science College, Oromia Regional State, Negele Borena, Ethiopia
Submission date: 2016-03-23
Acceptance date: 2016-12-14
Publication date: 2017-01-05
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2017;15(January):1
Deaths due to tobacco consumption are on the rise, from 5.4 million in 2005 to 6.4 million in 2015 and 8.3 million in 2030 of which more than 80% will be in developing countries. Smokeless tobacco use is a significant health risk and cause of disease. Over 300 million people use smokeless tobacco worldwide. More than 250 million adult smokeless tobacco users are in low- and middle-income countries, the total burden of smokeless tobacco use is likely to be substantial. In Ethiopia, nationally representative data on the smokeless tobacco use is not available. Most studies conducted in the country focused on cigarette smoking.

A community based cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative approaches was conducted from September 14–29, 2015. The study was conducted among adults in pastoralist communities in Borena zone, Ethiopia. A total of 634 households were selected randomly for interview. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and in-depth interview guide was used to assess adults’ practice, attitude, knowledge, and perception on Smokeless Tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to assess association between dependent and independent variables.

Out of 634 participants, 287 (45.3%) of them were current users of smokeless tobacco. Being Muslim (AOR = .21, 95% CI: .13, .33), being Christian (AOR = .38, 95% CI: .22, .67), and having good health risk perception toward smokeless tobacco use (AOR = .49, 95% CI: .34, .70) were protective factors for smokeless tobacco use, whereas favorable attitude (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.04) and high social pressure towards smokeless tobacco use (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.47) were factors independently associated with smokeless tobacco use.

This study concludes that smokeless tobacco use is very common in the selected districts of the Borena zone. The practice is strong linked to the lifestyle of the community.

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