RESEARCH PAPER
Prevalence and factor/s associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia - Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015
 
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1
Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
Institute of Public Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia
Publish date: 2018-01-26
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(January):1
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
The continuous monitoring of smoking prevalence and its associated factors is an integral part of anti-smoking programmes and valuable for the evaluation of the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures and policies. This study aimed at determining prevalence of smoking and identifying socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia aged 15 years and over.

Methods:
This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 21 445 adults in Malaysia, aged 15 years and over, selected via a stratified, two-stage proportionateto- size sampling method. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews by trained research assistants, using a standard validated questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among Malaysians.

Results:
The overall prevalence of smoking was 22.8% (95% CI: 21.9–23.8%), with males having a significantly higher prevalence compared to females (43.0%, 95% CI: 41.1–44.6 vs 1.4%, 95% CI: 1.1–1.7). The highest smoking prevalence was observed among other ethnicities (35.7%), those aged 25–44 years (59.3%), and low educational attainment (25.2%). Males, those with lower educational attainment and Malays were significantly associated with smoking.

Conclusions:
The prevalence of smoking among Malaysians, aged 15 years and over, remains high despite the implementation of several anti-smoking measures over the past decades. Specially tailored anti-smoking policies or measures, particularly targeting males, the Malays, younger adults and those with lower educational attainment, are greatly warranted to reduce the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Kuang H. Lim   
Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
 
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