REVIEW PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Smoking is considered as the major environmental risk factor for periodontal diseases. Smokers have a higher risk for severe periodontitis with more periodontal tissue destruction, more gingival recession, and more susceptibility for tooth loss. The aim of this narrative review is to provide up-to-date evidence on the clinical outcomes of periodontal treatment in smokers. Electronic databases were searched for studies that compare the clinical outcomes in smokers and nonsmokers following non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment modalities and also during the supportive periodontal treatment. Clinical studies published before May 2021 were included in the review. Smokers have a higher risk for recurrence of periodontal disease and the response to non-surgical as well as surgical periodontal treatment is not as good as that of non-smokers. Moreover, there is a dose-response effect in the adverse effects of smoking on periodontal health. Compared to non-smokers, smoker patients with periodontitis tend to respond less favorably to non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment, and exhibit recurrence more frequently during supportive periodontal treatment. Along with the periodontal treatment, smokers may be encouraged to quit. Long follow-up and the communication between the dentist and the patient give a great opportunity for such counseling.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
There was no source of funding for this study.
ETHICAL APPROVAL AND INFORMED CONSENT
Ethical approval and informed consent were not required as this is a review of existing literature.
DATA AVAILABILITY
The data supporting this study are available from the authors on reasonable request.
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS
NB provided primary oversight to the organization of the review, as well as specific sections on periodontal treatment. MK and BK provided the content for the review.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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