Hotel smoking policies and their implementation: a survey of California hotel managers
More details
Hide details
San Diego State University Research Foundation, San Diego, California, USA
Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
Joy M. Zakarian   

San Diego State University Research Foundation, 9245 Sky Park Court, Suite 225, San Diego, California 92123, USA
Submission date: 2017-06-27
Acceptance date: 2017-10-23
Publication date: 2017-10-30
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2017;15(October):40
Most states in the U.S. permit hotels to allow smoking in some guest rooms, and only five (Indiana, Michigan, North Dakota, Vermont, and Wisconsin) require that all hotel and motel rooms be 100% smoke-free (State and local 100% smokefree hotel and motel guest room laws enacted as of July 3, 2017). Little is known, however, about how hotels’ smoking policies have been implemented. This study examined hotels’ smoking policies and their implementation.

A telephone survey of a random sample of 383 California hotel managers was conducted.

Overall, 60.6% of hotels reported that smoking was prohibited in all guest rooms, and 4.7% reported that smoking was prohibited everywhere on their property. While California law permitted smoking in up to 65% of guest rooms, only 6.9% of rooms were reported as smoking-permitted. Over 90% of hotels had smoking rooms scattered among nonsmoking rooms, and about half of the smoking hotels reported that guests requesting either smoking or nonsmoking rooms were sometimes assigned to the other room type. When guests smoked in nonsmoking rooms fees could be substantial, but were often uncollected.

Hotel smoking policies and their implementation fall short of protecting nonsmoking guests and workers from exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke. Complete indoor smoking bans for all hotels are needed to close existing loopholes. Nonsmokers who wish to protect themselves from exposure to tobacco smoke should avoid hotels that permit smoking and instead stay in completely smoke-free hotels.

American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation. State and local 100% smokefree hotel and motel guest room laws enacted as of July 3, 2017. Accessed 12 Sep 2017.
Cal/OSHA Consultation Service. AB-13 Fact Sheet - California workplace smoking restrictions. Accessed 12 Sep 2017.
American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation. California's New Tobacco Control Laws are Now in Effect. Accessed 12 Sep 2017.
American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation. Colleges and Universities Accessed 12 Sep 2017.
American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation. Smokefree Cars. Accessed 12 Sep 2017.
Castro SJ: HUD awards $2 million to reduce health hazards in housing. Research grants to help control asthma and reduce tobacco smoke exposure. Washington: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; 2015.
Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Hovell MF, Bernert JT, Song S, Novianti N, et al. Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures. Tob Control. 2004;13:29–37.
Matt GE, Quintana PJE, Destaillats H, Gundel LA, Sleiman M, Singer BC, et al. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1218–26.
Matt GE, Quintana PJE, Zakarian JM, Fortmann AL, Chatfield DA, Hoh E, et al. When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure. Tob Control. 2011;20:e1-e.
Matt GE, Quintana PJE, Fortmann AL, Zakarian JM, Galaviz VE, Chatfield DA, et al. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure. Tob Control. 2014;23:264–72.
Lewinson T, Oliver Bryant L. There's no fresh air there: narratives of smoke exposure among residents of extended-stay hotels. Health Soc Work. 2015;40:77–83.
American Hotel & Lodging Educational Foundation and Smith Travel Research, Inc. : 2016 Lodging survey. Hotel trends: an inside look at popular amenities and guest services. Hendersonville, TN; 2016.
USA Today. Smoke-free lodgings. Accessed 12 Sep 2017.
IBM.: SPSS statistics. Release 22.0 Chicago, IL: IBM; 2013.
Newcombe RG. Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: comparison of seven methods. Stat Med. 1998;17:857–72.
Van Loy MD, Lee VC, Gundekl LA, Daisey JM, Sextro RG, Nazaroff WW. Dynamic behavior of semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor air. 1: nicotine in stainless steel chamber. Environ Sci Technol 1997;31:2554–2561.
Singer BC, Hodgson AT, Guevarra KS, Hawley EL, Nazaroff WW. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke. 1. Effects of smoking rate, ventilation, and furnishing level on emission factors. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:846–53.
Singer BC, Hodgson AT, Nazaroff WW. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking. Atmos Environ. 2003;37:5551–61.
Singer BC, Coleman BK, Destaillats H, Hodgson AT, Lunden MM, Weschler CJ, et al. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone. Atmos Environ. 2006;40:6696–710.
Destaillats H, Singer BC, Lee SK, Gundel LA. Effect of ozone on nicotine desorption from model surfaces: evidence for heterogeneous chemistry. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:1799–805.
Sleiman M, Destaillats H, Smith JD, Liu C-L, Ahmed M, Wilson KR, et al. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone-initiated reactions with nicotine and secondhand tobacco smoke. Atmos Environ. 2010;44:4191–8.
Dearlove JV, Bialous SA, Glantz SA. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places. Tob Control. 2002;11:94–104.
Matt GE, Fortmann AL, Quintana PJE, Zakarian JM, Romero RA, Chatfield DA, et al. Towards smoke-free rental cars: an evaluation of voluntary smoking restrictions in California. Tob Control. 2012;22:201–7.
Pearson D, Angulo A, Bourcier E, Freeman E, Valdez R. Hospitality Workers’ attitudes and exposure to secondhand smoke, hazardous chemicals, and working conditions. Public Health Rep. 2007;122:670–8.
“You Want Your Guests to Be Happy in This Business”: Hoteliers’ Decisions to Adopt Voluntary Smoke-Free Guest-Room Policies
Patricia A. McDaniel, Ruth E. Malone
American Journal of Health Promotion
Update on thirdhand smoke: A comprehensive systematic review
Ana Díez-Izquierdo, Pia Cassanello-Peñarroya, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Albert Balaguer, Jose M. Martínez-Sánchez
Environmental Research
Thirdhand smoke exposure: Differences in smoke exposure indices and cultural norms between hotels and motels in South Korea
Myung-Bae Park, Tae Lee, Jee Oh, Do Lee
Indoor and Built Environment