Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents
More details
Hide details
Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
Publish date: 2004-09-15
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2004;2(September):133
A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.
Nyi Nyi Naing   
Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian Kelantan, Malaysia
1. World Health Organization (WHO): Reported by the Director-General, WHO program on tobacco or health E13 77/22 Add 1 Geneva 1995.
2. Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General. 1994, Atlanta, Georgia: Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention.
3. Reducing the Health consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. 1989, Washington DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services. DHHS Publication of Centre for Disease Control (CDC), 11: 84-89.
4. Choon NS: Understanding Coronary Artery Disease. Medical Tribune. 1996, 9: 6-7.
5. Horn D: Behavioral aspects of cigarette smoking. Journal of Chronic Diseases. 1963, 16: 383-395. 10.1016/0021-9681(63)90115-2.
6. Fakta Masalah Sosial Remaja: Minda Pelajar. 1995, 79.
7. A study Group of the Public Health Department: The Smoking habits of school children. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine. 1959, 13: 1-4.
8. O' Connel DL, Alexander HM, Dobson AJ, Lloyd DM, Hardes GR, Spring thorpe HJ, Leeder SR: Cigarette smoking and drug use in school children. Eleven factors associated with smoking. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1981, 110: 223-231.
9. Salber EJ, Goldman E, Buka M, Welsh B: Smoking habit of high School students in Newton, Massachusetts. New England Journal of Medicine. 1961, 265: 969-974.
10. Thambypillai V: Smoking among urban Malaysia School Children. Social Science and Medicine. 1985, 21: 819-823. 10.1016/0277-9536(85)90130-3.
11. Abdullah S: National Health Morbidity Survey: Health risk behavior among adolescents. Ministry of Health Malaysia. 1996, 133-135.
12. Al-Faris EA: Smoking habits of secondary School boys in Rural Riyadh. Public Health. 1995, 109: 47-55. 10.1016/S0033-3506(95)80075-1.
13. Hu J, Liu R, Zhang H: A Survey of cigarette smoking among middle School Students in China. Public Health. 1990, 104: 345-351. 10.1016/S0033-3506(05)80527-X.
14. Aitken PP: Peer group pressures, parental controls and cigarette smoking among 10–14 year olds. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 1980, 19: 141-146.
15. Zhu BP, Liu M, Wang SQ: Cigarette smoking among junior high school students in Bejing, China in 1988. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1992, 21: 854-861. 10.1093/ije/21.5.854.
16. Wang SQ, Yu JJ, Zhu BP, Liu M, He GQ: Cigarette smoking and its risk factors among senior high school students in Bejing, China in 1988. Tobacco Control. 1994, 3: 107-114. 10.1136/tc.3.2.107.
17. Kawabata T, Maruya N, Nakamura M: Smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among Japanese adolescents: results from 'Japan know your body study'. Nippon-Koshu-Eisei-Zasshi. 1991, 38 (12): 885-899.
18. Auba J, Villalbi JR: Tobacco and adolescents: influence of personal environment. Medicina Clinica Barcelona. 1993, 100 (3): 506-509.
19. Rowlands DF, Shipster PJ: Cigarette smoking amongst Saudi schoolboys. Saudi Medical Journal. 1987, 8 (6): 613-618.
20. Mostafa A, Aboulfotoh , Mostafa AA, Wole A, Abdullah , Majed SK: Smoking habits of medical students at King Saud University, Riyadh. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 1992, 13 (6): 510-513.
21. Taha A, Bener A, Noah MS, Saeed A, Al-Harthy S: Smoking habits of King Saud university students in Riyadh. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 1991, 11 (2): 141-143.
22. Naing NN, Ahmad Z: Smoking and Discipline problems among rural secondary school students in Kelantan. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences. 1997, 4 (1): 54-58.
23. Social Learning and Personality Development. 1963, New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
24. Eiser J, Morgan RI, Gammage MP, Gray E: Adolescent smoking: Attitudes, norms and parental influence. British Journal of Social Psychology Part 3. 1963, 193-202.
25. Newman IM, Ward JM: The influence of parental attitude and behavior on early adolescent cigarette smoking. Journal of School Health. 1989, 59 (4): 150-152.
26. Baugh JC, Srinivasan SR, Sklov MC, Berenson GS, Hunter SM: Developmental trends of first cigarette smoking experience of children. The Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Public Health. 1982, 72 (10): 1161-1164. 10.2105/AJPH.72.10.1161.
27. Paine PA, Amaral JA, Pereira MG: Association between parental and student smoking behavior in a Brazilian Medical School. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1985, 14: 330-332. 10.1093/ije/14.2.330.
28. Pathmanathan I: Cigarette smoking among students in the University of Malaya. American Journal of Public Health. 1970, 10: 29-33.
29. Virgili M, Owen N, Sverson HH: Adolescents' smoking behavior and risk perception. Journal of Substance Abuse. 1991, 3 (3): 315-324.
30. Flay BR, Koepke D, Thomson SJ, Santi S: Six-year follow-up o f the first Waterloo school smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Public Health. 1989, 79 (10): 1371-1376. 10.2105/AJPH.79.10.1371.
31. Charlton A: Children's opinion about smoking. Journal of the Royal College of General Practice. 1984, 34: 483-487.
32. Fielding JE: Smoking: Health effects and control. New England Journal of Medicine. 1985, 313 (8): 491-498.
33. Lennox AS: Determinants of outcome in smoking cessation. British Journal of General Practice. 1992, 42: 247-252.
34. Mackay J: Combating addiction in developing countries. Smokers: Why Do They Start – And Continue?. Edited by: Chapman S. 1995, World Health Forum, 16: 1-27.
35. Pierce JP, Lee L, Gilpin AE: Smoking initiation by adolescent girls, 1944 through 1988. An association with targeted advertising. JAMA. 1994, 271: 608-611. 10.1001/jama.271.8.608.
36. Altman DG, Grimes DA, Chalmers I, Schulz KF: Sustained effects of an educational program to reduce sales of cigarettes to minors. American Journal of Public Health. 1994, 18: 39-42.
37. Rawhone RG, Keeling CA, Jenkins A, Guz A: Cigarette smoking among secondary children in 1975. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 1978, 32: 53-58. 10.1136/jech.32.1.53.
1. Smoking among school-going adolescents in selected secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia- findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyaHRB) study
Kuang Hock Lim, Hui Li Lim, Chien Huey Teh, Chee Cheong Kee, Yi Yi Khoo, Shubash Shander Ganapathy, Miaw Yn Jane Ling, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Eng Ong Tee
Tobacco Induced Diseases
2. Common Misconceptions and Future Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students in Malaysia
Brinnell Caszo, Muhammad Khair, Mohd Habbib Mustafa, Siti Nor Zafran, Nur Syazmin, Raja Nor Intan Safinaz, Justin Gnanou
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
3. The Experiences of Tobacco Use among South-Western Taiwanese Adolescent Males
Rei-Mei Hong, Su-Er Guo, Mei-Yen Chen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
4. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia
Abdelrahim Mutwakel Gaffar, Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy, Mohamed Salih Mahfouz
Substance Abuse
5. Smoking among Secondary School Students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study
Hock Kuang Lim, Huey Chien Teh, Li Hui Lim, Joo Keng Lau, Cheong Chee Kee, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Ying Ying Chan, Mohd Yusoff Sabtu, Hasimah Ismail, Nor Azian Mohd Zaki, Leni Tupang Thomas, Kuay Kuang Lim, SM Cheong, Normala ibrahim, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
6. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in secondary schools in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria
Joyce Okagua, Peace Opara, Balafama A. Alex-Hart
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
7. Smoking Stage Relations to Peer, School and Parental Factors among Secondary School Students in Kinta, Perak
Premila Devi Jeganathan, Noran N. Hairi, Nabilla Al Sadat, Karuthan Chinna
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
8. Adolescent Tobacco Use and Health in Southeast Asia
Nabilla Al-Sadat, A.Y. Misau, Z. Zarihah, Dahlui Maznah, Tin Tin Su
Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
9. The Impacts of Media Messaging and Age and Sex Variance on Adolescent Smoking Habits in Croatia
Dijana Mayer, Ivana Pavic Simetin, Urelija Rodin, Tomislav Benjak, Eda Puntarić, Ida Puntarić
Journal of Addiction Medicine
10. The Experiences of South-Western Taiwanese Male Adolescents Controlling Their Smoking After Exposure to an Education Program
Rei-Mei Hong, Mei-Yen Chen, Su-Er Guo, Lisa Hee
11. Incidence of Adverse Transition in Smoking Stages among Adolescents of Kinta, Perak
Premila Devi Jeganathan, Noran N. Hairi, Nabilla Al Sadat, Karuthan Chinna
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
12. Determinants of cigarette smoking among school adolescents on the island of Java, Indonesia
Mouhamad Bigwanto, Aroonsri Mongkolcharti, Karl Peltzer, Orapin Laosee
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
13. Risk and Protective Factors for Cigarette Use in Young Adolescents in a School Setting: What Could Be Done Better?
M. Dahlui, N. K. Jahan, H. A. Majid, M. Y. Jalaludin, L. Murray, M. Cantwell, T. T. Su, N. Al-Sadat, Xinguang Chen
14. Correlates of Current Smoking Among Malaysian Secondary School Children
Guat Hiong Tee, Gurpreet Kaur
Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
15. Exposure to second-hand smoke among secondary school-going adolescents: Findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) study
Hui Li Lim, Chien Huey Teh, Chee Cheong Kee, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Sayan a/l Pan, Kuang Hock Lim
Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare