RESEARCH PAPER
Extent and correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in smokers: Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys
 
More details
Hide details
1
Cancer Prevention Unit and WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
2
Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
3
Smoking or Health Hungarian Foundation (SHHF), Budapest, Hungary
4
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (UoA), Athens, Greece
5
University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Iasi, Romania
6
Aer Pur Romania, Bucharest, Romania
7
Health Promotion Foundation (HPF), Warsaw, Poland
8
Oncology Center, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute, Warsaw, Poland
9
European Observatory of Health Inequalities, President Stanisław Wojciechowski State University of Applied Sciences, Kalisz, Poland
10
Tobacco Control Unit, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Catalonia, Spain
11
Cancer Control and Prevention Group, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Catalonia, Spain
12
King’s College London (KCL), London, United Kingdom
13
Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands
14
Netherlands Expertise Center for Tobacco Control (Trimbos Institute), Utrecht, the Netherlands
15
European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP), Brussels, Belgium
16
University of Crete (UoC), Heraklion, Greece
17
Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo (UW), Waterloo, Canada
18
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo (UW), Waterloo, Canada
19
Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Canada
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Ute Mons   

Cancer Prevention Unit and WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Publish date: 2019-01-17
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(Suppl 2):A7
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
*EUREST-PLUS consortium members: European Network on Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP), Belgium: Constantine I. Vardavas, Andrea Glahn, Christina N. Kyriakos, Dominick Nguyen, Cornel Radu-Loghin, Polina Starchenko University of Crete (UoC), Greece: Aristidis Tsatsakis, Charis Girvalaki, Chryssi Igoumenaki, Katerina Nikitara, Sophia Papadakis, Aikaterini Papathanasaki, Manolis Tzatzarakis, Alexander I. Vardavas Kantar Public (TNS), Belgium: Nicolas Bécuwe, Lavinia Deaconu, Sophie Goudet, Christopher Hanley, Oscar Rivière Smoking or Health Hungarian Foundation (SHHF), Hungary: Tibor Demjén, Judit Kiss, Piroska A. Kovacs Catalan Institut of Oncology (ICO); Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Spain: Esteve Fernández, Yolanda Castellano, Marcela Fu, Sarah O. Nogueira, Olena Tigova Kings College London (KCL), United Kingdom: Ann McNeill, Katherine East, Sara C. Hitchman Cancer Prevention Unit and WHO Collaborating Centre for Tobacco Control, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Germany: Ute Mons, Sarah Kahnert National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (UoA), Greece: Yannis Tountas, Panagiotis Behrakis, Filippos T. Filippidis, Christina Gratziou, Paraskevi Katsaounou, Theodosia Peleki, Ioanna Petroulia, Chara Tzavara Aer Pur Romania, Romania: Antigona C. Trofor, Marius Eremia, Lucia Lotrean, Florin Mihaltan European Respiratory Society (ERS), Switzerland; Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany: Gernot Rohde, Tamaki Asano, Claudia Cichon, Amy Far, Céline Genton, Melanie Jessner, Linnea Hedman, Christer Janson, Ann Lindberg, Beth Maguire, Sofia Ravara, Valérie Vaccaro, Brian Ward Maastricht University, the Netherlands: Marc Willemsen, Hein de Vries, Karin Hummel, Gera E. Nagelhout Health Promotion Foundation (HPF), Poland: Witold A. Zatoński, Aleksandra Herbeć, Kinga Janik-Koncewicz, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Mateusz Zatoński University of Waterloo (UW); Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Canada: Geoffrey T. Fong, Thomas K. Agar, Pete Driezen, Shannon Gravely, Anne C. K. Quah, Mary E. Thompson
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) are known to promote tobacco consumption and to discourage smoking cessation. Consequently, comprehensive TAPS bans are effective measures to reduce smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent smokers are exposed to TAPS in general, and in various media and localities, in different European countries.

Methods:
A cross-sectional analysis of national representative samples of adult smokers in 2016 from Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Spain (EUREST-PLUS Project, n=6011), as well as England (n=3503) and the Netherlands (n=1213) (ITC Europe Surveys) was conducted. Prevalence of self-reported TAPS exposure is reported by country, and socioeconomic correlates were investigated using logistic regression models.

Results:
Self-reported exposure to TAPS varied widely among the countries, from 15.4 % in Hungary to 69.2 % in the Netherlands. In most countries, tobacco advertising was most commonly seen at the point of sale, and rarely noticed in mass media. The multivariate analysis revealed some variation in exposure to TAPS by sociodemographic factors. Age showed the greatest consistency across countries with younger smokers (18–24 years) being more likely to notice TAPS than older smokers.

Conclusions:
TAPS exposure tended to be higher in countries with less restrictive regulation but was also reported in countries with more comprehensive bans, although at lower levels. The findings indicate the need for a comprehensive ban on TAPS to avoid a shift of marketing efforts to less regulated channels, and for stronger enforcement of existing bans.

 
REFERENCES (25)
1.
Saffer H, Chaloupka F. The effect of tobacco advertising bans on tobacco consumption. J Health Econ. 2000;19(6):1117-1137. doi:S0167629600000540.
 
2.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2012.
 
3.
Lovato C, Watts A, Stead LF. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(10):Cd003439. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003439.pub2.
 
4.
Forsyth SR, Kennedy C, Malone RE. The effect of the internet on teen and young adult tobacco use: a literature review. J Pediatr Health Care. 2013;27(5):367-376. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2012.02.008.
 
5.
Hebert ET, Vandewater EA, Businelle MS, Harrell MB, Kelder SH, Perry CL. Real Time Assessment of Young Adults’ Attitudes toward Tobacco Messages. Tob Regul Sci. 2018;4(1):644-655. doi:10.18001/trs.4.1.10.
 
6.
National Cancer Institute. The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Vol 19. Tobacco Control Monograph. No. 07-6242. Bethesda, Maryland: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 2008.
 
7.
Clattenburg EJ, Elf JL, Apelberg BJ. Unplanned cigarette purchases and tobacco point of sale advertising: a potential barrier to smoking cessation. Tob Control. 2013;22(6):376-381. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050427.
 
8.
Siahpush M, Shaikh RA, Smith D, et al. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(2):203. doi:10.3390/ijerph13020203.
 
9.
Germain D, McCarthy M, Wakefield M. Smoker sensitivity to retail tobacco displays and quitting: a cohort study. Addiction. 2010;105(1):159-163. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02714.x.
 
10.
Levy DT, Chaloupka F, Gitchell J. The effects of tobacco control policies on smoking rates: a tobacco control scorecard. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2004;10(4):338-353. doi:10.1097/00124784-200407000-00011.
 
11.
World Health Organization. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
 
12.
Joosens L, Raw M. The Tobacco Control Scale 2016 in Europe. http://www.tobaccocontrolscale.... Published, 2017. Accessed May 30, 2018.
 
13.
European Parliament, European Council. Directive 2003/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the advertising and sponsorship of tobacco products. Brussels, Belgium: Official Journal of the European Union; 2003:L 152/116-L 152/119.
 
14.
European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP). European Regulatory Science on Tobacco: Policy implementation to reduce lung diseases (EUREST-PLUS). https://eurestplus.eu. Published, 2016. Accessed May 30, 2018.
 
15.
Vardavas CI, Bécuwe N, Demjén T, et al. Study Protocol of European Regulatory Science on Tobacco (EURESTPLUS): Policy implementation to reduce lung disease. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 2018;(Suppl 2:A2). doi:10.18332/tid/93305.
 
16.
European Parliament, European Council. Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco and related products and repealing Directive 2001/37/EC. Brussels, Belgium: Official Journal of the European Union; 2014:L127/121-L127/138.
 
17.
Fong GT, Thompson ME, Boudreau C, et al. The Conceptual Model and Methods of Wave 1 (2016) of the EUREST-PLUS ITC 6 European Countries Survey. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 2018;16(Suppl 2:Α3). doi:10.18332/tid/99881.
 
18.
Thompson ME, Fong GT, Hammond D, et al. Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob Control. 2006;15 Suppl 3:iii12-iii18. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.013870.
 
19.
ITC Project. ITC 6 European Country Wave 1 (2016) Technical Report. Brussels, Belgium: University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, and European Network on Smoking and Tobacco Prevention; 2017.
 
20.
ITC Project. ITC Four Country Tobacco and Vaping Survey Wave 1 (2017) Technical Report. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States; Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; King’s College London, London, United Kingdom; 2017.
 
21.
ITC Project. ITC Netherlands Wave 9-11 Technical Report. Unpublished manuscript. 2018.
 
22.
Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Rickert W, Robinson J. Measuring the heaviness of smoking: using self-reported time to the first cigarette of the day and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Br J Addict. 1989;84(7):791-799.
 
23.
Filippidis FT, Laverty AA, Fernández E, Mons U, Tigova O, Vardavas CI. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states. Tob Control. 2017. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053479.
 
24.
Mons U, Nagelhout GE, Guignard R, et al. Comprehensive smoke-free policies attract more support from smokers in Europe than partial policies. Eur J Public Health. 2012;22 Suppl 1:10-16. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckr202.
 
25.
World Health Organization. Guidelines for implementation of Article 13: Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; 2008.
 
 
CITATIONS (1):
1.
Cigarette brand loyalty among smokers in six European countries: Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys
Sarah Nogueira, Olena Tigova, Yolanda Castellano, Ute Mons, Christina Kyriakos, Ann McNeill, Antigona Trofor, Witold Zatoński, Krzysztof Przewoźniak, Tibor Demjén, Yannis Tountas, Anne Quah, Geoffrey Fong, Marcela Fu, Constantine Vardavas, Esteve Fernández, on behalf of the EUREST-PLUS consortium*
Tobacco Induced Diseases
 
eISSN:1617-9625