REVIEW PAPER
Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use in the United States
 
More details
Hide details
1
Mail Stop K-50, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
2
Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Koger Center, Atlanta, USA
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Ralph S. Caraballo   

Mail Stop K-50, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, N.E., Atlanta, GA, USA
Publish date: 2011-05-23
 
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2011;9(Suppl 1):S1
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Approximately one-fourth of all cigarettes sold in the United States have the descriptor “menthol” on the cigarette pack. It is important to determine what socio-demographic factors are associated with smoking menthol cigarettes if indeed these types of cigarettes are related to smoking initiation, higher exposure to smoke constituents, nicotine dependence, or reduced smoking cessation.

Methods:
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted a review of the scientific literature on this topic which we completed by adding more recently published articles via PubMed. We also conducted further data analyses using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the National Youth Tobacco Survey, the Monitoring the Future Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to provide up-to-date information on this topic.

Results:
Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately smoked by adolescents, blacks/African Americans, adult females, those living in the Northeast of the United States and those with family incomes lower than $50,000. Based on self-reports of menthol cigarette use, menthol cigarette use among smokers have increased from 2004 to 2008. However, no increase was observed during these years for predominantly menthol brands like Newport™, Kool,™ and Salem™, however, this lack of significant trend may be due, at least in part, due to smaller numbers of smokers of specific brands or sub-brands, which provide estimates which are less precise.

Conclusions:
Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately smoked by groups of U.S. cigarette smokers. It is likely that other disparities in menthol cigarette use exist that we have not covered or have not been studied yet.

 
REFERENCES (39)
1.
Federal Trade Commission: Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide Reports Including Universal Product Codes, TITL Codes, and Field “packtype” from 1998 to 2005. 2009, Unpublished report available from the authors.
 
2.
Federal Register: Rescission of FTC Guidance the Cambridge Filter Method. 2008, 73 (236): 74,500-74,505.
 
3.
Werley MS, Coggins CR, Lee PN: Possible effects on smokers of cigarette mentholation: a review of the evidence relating to key research questions. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007, 47: 189-203. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2006.09.004.
 
4.
Henningfield JE, Djordjevick MV: Menthol cigarettes: research needs and challenges. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004, 6 (Suppl 1): S11-16. 10.1080/14622200310001649450.
 
5.
Clark PI, Gardiner PS, Djordjevic MV, et al: Menthol cigarettes: setting the research agenda. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004, 6 Suppl 1: S5-S9. 10.1080/14622200310001649441.
 
6.
Hersey JC, Nonnemaker JM, Homsi G: Menthol cigarettes contribute to the appeal and addiction potential of smoking for youth. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010, 12 (Suppl 2): S136-146. 10.1093/ntr/ntq173.
 
7.
Celebucki CC, Wayne GF, Connolly GN, Pankow JF, Chang EI: Characterization of measured menthol in 48 US cigarette sub-brands. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005, 7 (4): 523-31. 10.1080/14622200500186270.
 
8.
Kreslake JM, Wayne GF, Alpert HR, Koh HK, Connolly GN: Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults. Am J Public Health. 2008, 98: 1685-1692. 10.2105/AJPH.2007.125542.
 
9.
Giovino GA, Sidney S, Gfroerer JC, O’Malley PM, Allen JA, Richter PA, et al: Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004, 6 (Suppl 1): S67-81. 10.1080/14622203710001649696.
 
10.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: The NSDUH Report: Use of Menthol Cigarettes. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (DHHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434, NSDUH Series H-36). Also available online: http://oas.samhsa.gov.
 
11.
NCI Bibliography on Menthol and Tobacco. Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, http://cancercontrol.cancer.go.... Accessed on May 4, 2010.
 
12.
Osaki Y, Tanihata T, Ohida T, Minowa M, Wada K, Suzuki K, et al: Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan. Tob Control. 2006, 15 (3): 172-80. 10.1136/tc.2005.013060.
 
13.
Appleyard J, Messeri P, Haviland ML: Smoking among Asian American and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth: data from the 2000 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Asian Am Pac Isl J Health. 2001, 9 (1): 5-14.
 
14.
Hersey JC, Ng SW, Nonnemaker JM, Mowery P, Thomas KY, Vilsaint MC, et al: Are menthol cigarettes a starter product for youth?. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006, 8 (3): 403-13. 10.1080/14622200600670389.
 
15.
Kaufman NJ, Castrucci BC, Mowery P, Gerlach KK, Emont S, Orleans TC: Changes in adolescent cigarette-brand preference, 1989 to 1996. Am J Health Behav. 2004, 28 (1): 54-62.
 
16.
Barker D: Changes in the cigarette brand preferences of adolescent smokers− United States, 1989-1993. MMWR. 1994, 43: 577-581.
 
17.
Muilenburg JL, Legge JS: African American adolescents and menthol cigarettes: smoking behavior among secondary school students. J Adolesc Health. 2008, 43 (6): 570-5. 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.08.017.
 
18.
Cummings KM, Hyland A, Pechacek TF, Orlandi M, Lynn WR: Comparison of recent trends in adolescent and adult cigarette smoking behaviour and brand preferences. Tob Control. 1997, 6 (Suppl 2): S31-7. 10.1136/tc.6.suppl_2.S31.
 
19.
Moolchan ET: Adolescent menthol smokers: will they be a harder target for cessation?. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004, 6 (Suppl 1): S93-5. 10.1080/14622203310001649522.
 
20.
Richter PA, Pederson LL, O’Hegarty MM: Young adult smoker risk perceptions of traditional cigarettes and nontraditional tobacco products. Am J Health Behav. 2006, 30 (3): 302-12.
 
21.
Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE: Cigarette brand preferences among adolescents. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 45. Ann Arbor. 1999, MI: Institute for Social Research, [http://www.monitoringthefuture...].
 
22.
Haas AL, Sorensen JL, Hall SM, Lin C, Delucchi K, Sporer K, et al: Cigarette smoking in opioid-using patients presenting for hospital-based medical services. Am J Addict. 2008, 17 (1): 65-9. 10.1080/10550490701756112.
 
23.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: Cigarette brand preferences. 2003, Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Drug Abuse, http://www.DrugAbuseStatistics.... Accessed on May 25, 2010.
 
24.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: Cigarette brand preferences. 2005, Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Drug Abuse, http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k7/.... Accessed on May 25, 2010.
 
25.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: National Survey on Drug Use & Health. Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Drug Abuse, http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsd.... Accessed on May 25, 2010.
 
26.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Youth Tobacco Survey. Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/dat.... Accessed on May 25, 2010.
 
27.
National Institute of Drug Abuse: Monitoring the Future Survey. Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse, http://www.monitoringthefuture.... Accessed on May 25, 2010.
 
28.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Web. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.... Accessed on May 25, 2010.
 
29.
O’Connor RJ: What brands are US smokers under 25 choosing?. Tob Control. 2005, 14: 213.
 
30.
Chen X, Cruz TB, Schuster DV, Unger JB, Johnson CA: Receptivity to protobacco media and its impact on cigarette smoking among ethnic minority youth in California. J Health Commun. 2002, 7: 95-111. 10.1080/10810730290087987.
 
31.
Caraballo RS, Novak SP, Asman K: Linking quantity and frequency profiles of cigarette smoking to the presence of nicotine dependence symptoms among adolescent smokers: findings from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009, 11: 49-57. 10.1093/ntr/ntn008.
 
32.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Preventing tobacco use among young people. A report of the Surgeon General. 1994, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA.
 
33.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. YRBS Trends (1997-2007). http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYout.... Accessed on 5/4/2010. Web.
 
34.
National Cancer Institute: The role of the media in promoting and reducing tobacco use. Tobacco control monograph No. 19. 2008, Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, national Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 07-6242.
 
35.
Allen B, Unger JB: Sociocultural correlates of menthol cigarette smoking among adult African Americans in Los Angeles. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007, 9 (4): 447-51. 10.1080/14622200701239647.
 
36.
Clemmey P, Brooner R, Chutuape MA, Kidorf M, Stitzer M: Smoking habits and attitudes in a methadone maintenance treatment population. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1997, 44 (2-3): 123-32. 10.1016/S0376-8716(96)01331-2.
 
37.
Hymowitz N, Corle D, Royce J, Hartwell T, Corbett K, Orlandi M, et al: Smokers’ baseline characteristics in the COMMIT trial. Prev Med. 1995, 24 (5): 503-8. 10.1006/pmed.1995.1080.
 
38.
Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Salmon MA, Strecher VJ, Kalsbeek W, Quade D, et al: A survey of smoking and quitting patterns among black Americans. Am J Public Health. 1989, 79 (2): 176-81. 10.2105/AJPH.79.2.176.
 
39.
Sidney S, Tekawa I, Friedman GD: Mentholated cigarette use among multiphasic examinees, 1979-86. Am J Public Health. 1989, 79 (10): 1415-6. 10.2105/AJPH.79.10.1415.
 
 
CITATIONS (45):
1.
Predictors of Intention to Obtain Colorectal Cancer Screening Among African American Men in a State Fair Setting
Charles R. Rogers, Patricia Goodson, Lindsey R. Dietz, Kola S. Okuyemi
American Journal of Men's Health
 
2.
Flavored Tobacco Product Use in Youth and Adults: Findings From the First Wave of the PATH Study (2013–2014)
Andrea C. Villanti, Amanda L. Johnson, Bridget K. Ambrose, K. Michael Cummings, Cassandra A. Stanton, Shyanika W. Rose, Shari P. Feirman, Cindy Tworek, Allison M. Glasser, Jennifer L. Pearson, Amy M. Cohn, Kevin P. Conway, Raymond S. Niaura, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Andrew Hyland
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
 
3.
Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing
Betsy Brock, Samantha C. Carlson, Molly Moilanen, Barbara A. Schillo
Preventive Medicine Reports
 
4.
Harm Perceptions of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes Differ by Brand, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender in US Adult Smokers: Results from PATH Wave 1
Amy M Cohn, Shyanika W Rose, Vinu Ilakkuvan, Tiffany Gray, Laurel Curry, Andrea C Villanti, Darren Mays, Eric Lindblom, Kenneth Tercyak, Charles Debnam, Ashley Mayo, Lexie Perreras
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
5.
Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?
Gary A Giovino, Andrea C Villanti, Paul D Mowery, Varadan Sevilimedu, Raymond S Niaura, Donna M Vallone, David B Abrams
Tobacco Control
 
6.
Perceptions of Menthol Cigarettes Among Twitter Users: Content and Sentiment Analysis
Shyanika W Rose, Catherine L Jo, Steven Binns, Melissa Buenger, Sherry Emery, Kurt M Ribisl
Journal of Medical Internet Research
 
7.
Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing to Youth in New York State
Elizabeth Needham Waddell, Rachel Sacks, Shannon M. Farley, Michael Johns
Journal of Adolescent Health
 
8.
Mentholation affects the cigarette microbiota by selecting for bacteria resistant to harsh environmental conditions and selecting against potential bacterial pathogens
Jessica Chopyk, Suhana Chattopadhyay, Prachi Kulkarni, Emma Claye, Kelsey R. Babik, Molly C. Reid, Eoghan M. Smyth, Lauren E. Hittle, Joseph N. Paulson, Raul Cruz-Cano, Mihai Pop, Stephanie S. Buehler, Pamela I. Clark, Amy R. Sapkota, Emmanuel F. Mongodin
Microbiome
 
9.
Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys
Geoffrey M. Curtin, Sandra I. Sulsky, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kristin M. Marano, Monica J. Graves, Michael W. Ogden, James E. Swauger
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
 
10.
Young Adults' Behavioral Intentions Surrounding a Potential Menthol Cigarette Ban
O. A. Wackowski, M. T. B. Manderski, C. D. Delnevo
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
11.
A Ban on Menthol Cigarettes: Impact on Public Opinion and Smokers' Intention to Quit
Jennifer L. Pearson, David B. Abrams, Raymond S. Niaura, Amanda Richardson, Donna M. Vallone
American Journal of Public Health
 
12.
The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
Cancer Causes & Control
 
13.
Associations Between Cigarette Print Advertising and Smoking Initiation Among African Americans
Dennis R. Trinidad, Lyzette Blanco, Sherry L. Emery, Pebbles Fagan, Martha M. White, Mark B. Reed
Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
 
14.
Enhancing effect of menthol on nicotine self-administration in rats
Lisa Biswas, Erin Harrison, Yongzhen Gong, Ramachandram Avusula, Jonathan Lee, Meiyu Zhang, Thomas Rousselle, Janice Lage, Xiu Liu
Psychopharmacology
 
15.
Inflammatory Effects of Menthol vs. Non-menthol Cigarette Smoke Extract on Human Lung Epithelial Cells: A Double-Hit on TRPM8 by Reactive Oxygen Species and Menthol
An-Hsuan Lin, Meng-Han Liu, Hsin-Kuo B. Ko, Diahn-Warng Perng, Tzong-Shyuan Lee, Yu Ru Kou
Frontiers in Physiology
 
16.
Use of flavoured cigarettes in Poland: data from the global adult tobacco survey (2009–2010)
Dorota Kaleta, Bukola Usidame, Anna Szosland-Fałtyn, Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska
BMC Public Health
 
17.
Switching Between Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes: Findings From the U.S. Cohort of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey
Karin A. Kasza, Andrew J. Hyland, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Lisa M. Vogl, Jiping Chen, Sarah E. Evans, Geoffrey T. Fong, Kenneth Michael Cummings, Richard J. O’Connor
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
18.
Older African American Homeless-Experienced Smokers’ Attitudes Toward Tobacco Control Policies—Results from the HOPE HOME Study
Maya Vijayaraghavan, Pamela Olsen, John Weeks, Karma McKelvey, Claudia Ponath, Margot Kushel
American Journal of Health Promotion
 
19.
Effects of Menthol on the Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Among Black Smokers
K. S. Okuyemi, B. Faseru, G. A. Reed, L. S. Cox, C. A. Bronars, I. Opole, G.-L. Whembolua, M. S. Mayo, J. S. Ahluwalia, N. L. Benowitz
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
20.
Novel Methodologies and the Need for Big Data in Nicotine and Tobacco Genetics Research
Sean P. David
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
21.
Menthol cigarette smoking in the COPDGene cohort: Relationship with COPD, comorbidities and CT metrics
Seoung Ju Park, Marilyn G. Foreman, Dawn L. Demeo, Surya P. Bhatt, Nadia N. Hansel, Robert A. Wise, Xavier Soler, Russell P. Bowler
Respirology
 
22.
Menthol cigarette smoking among individuals in treatment for substance use disorders
Noah R. Gubner, Denise D. Williams, Anna Pagano, Barbara K. Campbell, Joseph Guydish
Addictive Behaviors
 
23.
A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?
Judith Rosenbloom, Vaughan W Rees, Kathleen Reid, Jeannie Wong, Taru Kinnunen
Tobacco Induced Diseases
 
24.
Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking
Amanda L Dauphinee, Juliana R Doxey, Nina C Schleicher, Stephen P Fortmann, Lisa Henriksen
BMC Public Health
 
25.
Genetic Vulnerability to Menthol Cigarette Preference in Women
Cheryl Oncken, Richard Feinn, Jonathan Covault, Valerie Duffy, Ellen Dornelas, Henry R. Kranzler, Heather Z. Sankey
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
26.
Epidemiology of Lung Cancer
Anthony J. Alberg, Malcolm V. Brock, Jean G. Ford, Jonathan M. Samet, Simon D. Spivack
Chest
 
27.
Menthol cigarettes and the public health standard: a systematic review
Andrea C. Villanti, Lauren K. Collins, Raymond S. Niaura, Stacey Y. Gagosian, David B. Abrams
BMC Public Health
 
28.
Determining non-cigarette tobacco, alcohol, and substance use typologies across menthol and non-menthol smokers using latent class analysis
Amy Cohn, Amanda Johnson, Jennifer Pearson, Shyanika Rose, Sarah Ehlke, Ollie Ganz, Raymond Niaura
Tobacco Induced Diseases
 
29.
Menthol use among smokers with psychological distress: findings from the 2008 and 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health
Norval J Hickman, Kevin L Delucchi, Judith J Prochaska
Tobacco Control
 
30.
Effects of menthol and its interaction with nicotine-conditioned cue on nicotine-seeking behavior in rats
Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Ramachandram Avusula, Meiyu Zhang, Yongzhen Gong, Xiu Liu
Psychopharmacology
 
31.
National Surveys and Tobacco Use Among African Americans: A Review of Critical Factors
Italia V. Rolle, Derrick D. Beasley, Sara M. Kennedy, Valerie J. Rock, Linda Neff
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
32.
Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys
Geoffrey M. Curtin, Sandra I. Sulsky, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kristin M. Marano, Monica J. Graves, Michael W. Ogden, James E. Swauger
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
 
33.
Menthol Cigarette Use: The Challenge to Improve Measurement and Monitoring Among Adolescent Smokers
V. J. Rock, S. P. Davis, S. L. Thorne, R. S. Caraballo
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
34.
Menthol Cigarette Smoking among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults
Amanda Fallin, Amie J. Goodin, Brian A. King
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
 
35.
Associations between smoking behaviors and financial stress among low-income smokers
Rachel Widome, Anne M. Joseph, Patrick Hammett, Michelle Van Ryn, David B. Nelson, John A. Nyman, Steven S. Fu
Preventive Medicine Reports
 
36.
Correlates and Prevalence of Menthol Cigarette Use Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness
K. C. Young-Wolff, N. J. Hickman, R. Kim, K. Gali, J. J. Prochaska
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
37.
Impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on perceptions and use among youth, young adults and adults: a systematic review
Li-Ling Huang, Hannah M Baker, Clare Meernik, Leah M Ranney, Amanda Richardson, Adam O Goldstein
Tobacco Control
 
38.
Association of TAS2R38 Haplotypes and Menthol Cigarette Preference in an African American Cohort
Davide Risso, Eduardo Sainz, Joanne Gutierrez, Thomas Kirchner, Raymond Niaura, Dennis Drayna
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
39.
Menthol facilitates dopamine-releasing effect of nicotine in rat nucleus accumbens
Meiyu Zhang, Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Thuy Tran, Xiu Liu
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
 
40.
Sex Differences in Attaining Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Milestones Among Novice Smokers
Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Miguel Chagnon, Robert J Wellman, Erika N Dugas, Jennifer O’Loughlin
American Journal of Epidemiology
 
41.
Menthol Smoking Patterns and Smoking Perceptions Among Youth: Findings From the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study
Amy M. Cohn, Shyanika W. Rose, Joanne D'Silva, Andrea C. Villanti
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
 
42.
Impact of Menthol on Oral Nicotine Consumption in Female and Male Sprague Dawley Rats
Deniz Bagdas , Betul Cam , Zulfiye Gul , Michael M Scott , Rachel F Tyndale , Rifat Levent Buyukuysal , M Imad Damaj, Mine Sibel Gurun
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
43.
Neuroscience of Nicotine
Brandon J. Henderson
 
44.
An African-specific haplotype in MRGPRX4 is associated with menthol cigarette smoking
Julia Kozlitina, Davide Risso, Katherine Lansu, Reid Hans Johnson Olsen, Eduardo Sainz, Donata Luiselli, Arnab Barik, Carlos Frigerio-Domingues, Luca Pagani, Stephen Wooding, Thomas Kirchner, Ray Niaura, Bryan Roth, Dennis Drayna, Gregory S. Barsh
PLOS Genetics
 
45.
Menthol Cigarettes, Tobacco Dependence, and Smoking Persistence: The Need to Examine Enhanced Cognitive Functioning as a Neuropsychological Mechanism
Nancy C Jao, Marcia M Tan, Phoenix A Matthews, Melissa A Simon, Robert Schnoll, Brian Hitsman
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
eISSN:1617-9625