Electronic cigarettes: overview of chemical composition and exposure estimation
More details
Hide details
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Sigmaringen, Sigmaringen, Germany
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
Institute of Chemistry, Saratov State University, Saratov, Russia
Bruker Biospin GmbH, Silberstreifen, Rheinstetten, Germany
Dirk W Lachenmeier   

Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
Publish date: 2014-12-09
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2014;12(December):23
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised to tobacco users as a tool to decrease cigarette consumption and to reduce toxic exposure associated with conventional tobacco smoking. Little is known about the compounds contained in such products, their exposure and long-term health effects.

NMR spectroscopy was used to ascertain the content of several constituents of e-cigarette liquids including nicotine, solvents and some bioactive flavour compounds. Risk assessment was based on probabilistic exposure estimation and comparison with toxicological thresholds using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach.

In 54 samples of e-cigarette liquids, the average nicotine content was 11 mg/ml. Only 18 from 23 samples were confirmed as nicotine-free samples and in one e-cigarette liquid nicotine was not detected while being declared on the labelling. Major compounds of e-cigarette liquids include glycerol (average 37 g/100 g), propylene glycol (average 57 g/100 g) and ethylene glycol (average 10 g/100 g). Furthermore, 1,3-propanediol, thujone and ethyl vanillin were detected in some samples. The average exposure for daily users was estimated as 0.38 mg/kg bw/day for nicotine, 8.9 mg/kg bw/day for glycerol, 14.5 mg/kg bw/day for 1,2-propanediol, 2.1 mg/kg bw/day for ethylene glycol, and below 0.2 mg/kg bw/day for the other compounds. The MOE was below 0.1 for nicotine, but all other compounds did not reach MOE values below 100 except ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol.

NMR spectroscopy is a useful and rapid method to simultaneously detect several ingredients in e-cigarette liquids. From all compounds tested, only nicotine may reach exposures that fall into a high risk category with MOE <1. Therefore, e-cigarette liquid products should be subjected to regulatory control to ensure consistent nicotine delivery. Solvents with more favourable toxicological profiles should be used instead of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol, which may fall into a risk category with MOE < 100.

Yamin CK, Bitton A, Bates DW: E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing internet phenomenon. Ann Intern Med. 2010, 153: 607-609. 10.7326/0003-4819-153-9-201011020-00011.
Regan AK, Promoff G, Dube SR, Arrazola R: Electronic nicotine delivery systems: adult use and awareness of the ‘e-cigarette’ in the USA. Tob Control. 2011, 22: 19-23. 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050044.
Farsalinos KE, Romagna G, Allifranchini E, Ripamonti E, Bocchietto E, Todeschi S, Tsiapras D, Kyrzopoulos S, Voudris V: Comparison of the cytotoxic potential of cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette vapour extract on cultured myocardial cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013, 10: 5146-5162. 10.3390/ijerph10105146.
Romagna G, Allifranchini E, Bocchietto E, Todeschi S, Esposito M, Farsalinos KE: Cytotoxicity evaluation of electronic cigarette vapor extract on cultured mammalian fibroblasts (ClearStream-LIFE): comparison with tobacco cigarette smoke extract. Inhal Toxicol. 2013, 25: 354-361. 10.3109/08958378.2013.793439.
Odum LE, O’Dell KA, Schepers JS: Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation?. J Pharm Pract. 2012, 25: 611-614. 10.1177/0897190012451909.
Vansickel AR, Cobb CO, Weaver MF, Eissenberg TE: A clinical laboratory model for evaluating the acute effects of electronic “cigarettes”: nicotine delivery profile and cardiovascular and subjective effects. Cancer Epidemol Biomarkers Prev. 2010, 19: 1945-1953. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0288.
Flouris AD, Poulianiti KP, Chorti MS, Jamurtas AZ, Kouretas D, Owolabi EO, Tzatzarakis MN, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y: Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012, 50: 3600-3603. 10.1016/j.fct.2012.07.025.
Trtchounian A, Williams M, Talbot P: Conventional and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have different smoking characteristics. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013, 12: 905-912. 10.1093/ntr/ntq114.
Foulds J, Veldheer S, Berg A: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives. Int J Clin Pract. 2011, 65: 1037-1042. 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02751.x.
Laugesen M: Safety Report on the Ruyan E-cigarette Cartridge and Inhaled Aerosol. 2008, Health New Zealand Ltd, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Polosa R, Caponnetto P, Morjaria JB, Papale G, Campagna D, Russo C: Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study. BMC Public Health. 2011, 11: 786-10.1186/1471-2458-11-786.
Lindsay JC: Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report: “Evaluation of E-cigarettes”. 2009, Exponent Health Sciences, Houston, TX, USA.
Trehy ML, Ye W, Handwiger ME, Moore TW, Allgire JF, Woodruff JT, Ahadi SS, Black JC, Westenberger BJ: Analysis of electronic cigarette cartridges, refill solutions, and smoke for nicotine and nicotine related impurities. J Liq Chrom Rel Technol. 2011, 34: 1442-1458. 10.1080/10826076.2011.572213.
Thomas B: Njoy Study to Determine Presence of TSNAs in Njoy Vapor. 2009, Ben Thomas Group , LLC, Houston, TX, USA.
Hadwiger ME, Trehy ML, Ye W, Moore T, Allgire J, Westenberger BJ: Identification of amino-tadalafil and rimonabant in electronic cigarette products using high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A. 2010, 1217: 7547-7555. 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.10.018.
Alliance Technologies: Characterization of Regal Cartridges for Electronic Cigarettes - Phase II. 2009, Alliance Technologies, Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA.
Etter JF, Zather E, Svensson S: Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. Addiction. 2013, 108: 1671-1679. 10.1111/add.12235.
Goniewicz ML, Kuma T, Gawron M, Knysak J, Kosmider L: Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013, 15: 158-166. 10.1093/ntr/nts103.
Goniewicz ML, Hajek P, McRobbie H: Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications. Addiction. 2014, 109: 500-507. 10.1111/add.12410.
Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, Kosmider L, Sobczak A, Kurek J, Prokopowicz A, Jablonska-Czapla M, Rosik-Dulewska C, Havel C, Peyton IJ, Benowitz N: Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob Control. 2014, 23: 133-139. 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050859.
Monakhova YB, Kuballa T, Löbell-Behrends S, Maixner S, Kohl-Himmelseher M, Ruge W, Lachenmeier DW: Standardless 1H NMR determination of pharmacology active substances in dietary supplements and medicines that have been illegaly traded over the Internet. Drug Test Anal. 2012, 5: 400-411. 10.1002/dta.1367.
Maes P, Monakhova YB, Kuballa T, Reusch H, Lachenmeier DW: Qualitative and quantitative control of carbonated cola beverages using 1H NMR spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem. 2012, 60: 2778-2784. 10.1021/jf204777m.
BfR: Liquids from E-cigarettes can be Detrimental to Health. BfR Opinion No. 016/2012. 2012, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany.
Lachenmeier DW, Breaux TA, Kuballa T, Schlee C, Monakhova YB: Composition of distilled Perique tobacco liqueur: a connoisseur’s spirit or a health risk due to nicotine?. Food Chem. 2014, 159: 230-235. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.152.
German Institute for Standardization: DIN 32 645. Chemical Analysis - Decision Limit, Detection Limit and Determination Limit Under Repeatability Conditions - Terms, Methods, Evaluation. 2008, Beuth Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Lachenmeier DW, Przybylski MC, Rehm J: Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach. Int J Cancer. 2012, 131: E995-E1003. 10.1002/ijc.27553.
Lachenmeier DW, Rehm J: Unrecorded alcohol - no worries besides ethanol: a population-based probabilistic risk assessment. Alcohol Policy in Europe: Evidence from AMPHORA. Edited by: Anderson P, Braddick F, Reynolds J, Gual A. 2013, Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA), Barcelona, Spain, 118-130. 2.
Lachenmeier DW, Godelmann R, Witt B, Riedel K, Rehm J: Can resveratrol in wine protect against the carcinogenicity of ethanol? A probabilistic dose–response assessment. Int J Cancer. 2014, 134: 144-153. 10.1002/ijc.28336.
Lachenmeier DW, Wegert K, Kuballa T, Schneider R, Ruge W, Reusch H, Alexy U, Kersting M, Winkler G: Caffeine intake from beverages in German children, adolescents, and adults. J Caffeine Res. 2013, 3: 47-53. 10.1089/jcr.2013.0008.
EFSA: Potential risks for public health due to the presence of nicotine in wild mushrooms. EFSA J. 2009, RN-286: 1-47.
OECD SIDS: Glycerol CAS No: 56-81-5. 2002, UNEP Publications, Nairobi, Kenya.
JECFA: 1,2-Propylene glycol. WHO Food Additives Series 5. Toxicological Evaluation of Some Food Additives Including Anticaking Agents, Antimicrobials, Antioxidants, Emulsifiers, and Thickening Agents. 1974, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 275-277.
ATSDR: Toxicological Profile for Ethylene glycol. 2010, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia.
EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain: Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils - Part III of III. EFSA J. 2012, 10: 2984.
JECFA: Ethyl vanillin. WHO Food Additives Series 35. Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. 1996, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 141-154.
Lachenmeier DW, Uebelacker M: Risk assessment of thujone in foods and medicines containing sage and wormwood - evidence for a need of regulatory changes?. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010, 58: 437-443. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.08.012.
U.S.EPA: The Use of the Benchmark Dose Approach in Health Risk Assessment. EPA/630/R-94/007. 1995, Office of Research and Development. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
EFSA: Opinion of the Scientific Committee on a request from EFSA related to a harmonised approach for risk assessment of substances which are both genotoxic and carcinogenic. EFSA J. 2005, 282: 1-31.
Medeiros Vinci R, Jacxsens L, Van Loco J, Matsiko E, Lachat C, de Schaetzen T, Canfyn M, Van Overmeire I, Kolsteren P, De Meulenaer B: Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market. Chemosphere. 2012, 88: 1001-1007. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.044.
Farsalinos KE, Romagna G, Tsiapras D, Kyrzopoulos S, Voudris V: Evaluating nicotine levels selection and patterns of electronic cigarette use in a group of “vapers” who had achieved complete substitution of smoking. Subst Abuse. 2013, 7: 139-146.
EFSA Scientific Committee: Guidance on selected default values to be used by the EFSA Scientific Committee, Scientific Panels and Units in the absence of actual measured data. EFSA J. 2012, 10: 2579.
Lindgren M, Molander L, Verbaan C, Lunell E, Rosen I: Electroencephalographic effects of intravenous nicotine–a dose–response study. Psychopharmacol (Berl). 1999, 145: 342-350. 10.1007/s002130051067.
Hine CH, Anderson HH, Moon HD, Dunlap MK, Morse MS: Comparative toxicity of synthetic and natural glycerin. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med. 1953, 7: 282-291.
Gaunt IF, Carpanini FM, Grasso P, Lansdown AB: Long-term toxicity of propylene glycol in rats. Food Cosmet Toxicol. 1972, 10: 151-162. 10.1016/S0015-6264(72)80193-7.
Weil CS, Woodside MD, Smyth HF, Carpenter CP: Results of feeding propylene glycol in the diet to dogs for two years. Food Cosmet Toxicol. 1971, 9: 479-490. 10.1016/0015-6264(71)90078-2.
Neeper-Bradley TL, Tyl RW, Fisher LC, Kubena MF, Vrbanic MA, Losco PE: Determination of a no-observed-effect level for developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol administered by gavage to CD rats and CD-1 mice. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1995, 27: 121-130. 10.1006/faat.1995.1115.
Tyl RW, Ballantyne B, France KA, Fisher LC, Klonne DR, Pritts IM: Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol monohexyl ether vapor in Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1989, 12: 269-280. 10.1016/0272-0590(89)90044-4.
NTP: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a,b-thujone (Cas No. 76231-76-0) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 2011, 570: 1-260.
Westenberger BJ: Evaluation of E-cigarettes. DPATR-FY-09-23. 2009, FDA Department of Health & Human Services, St. Lous, MO.
Alliance Technologies: Chemical Composition of “Instead” Electronic Cigarette Smoke Juice and Vapour. 2009, Alliance Technologies, Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA.
Alliance Technologies: Characterization of Liquid “Smoke Juice” for Electronic Cigarettes. 2009, Alliance Technologies, Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA.
Monakhova YB, Tsikin AM, Kuballa T, Lachenmeier DW, Mushtakova SP: Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms for improved spectral deconvolution of overlapped signals in 1H NMR analysis: application to foods and related products. Magn Reson Chem. 2014, 52: 231-240. 10.1002/mrc.4059.
Lambe J: The use of food consumption data in assessments of exposure to food chemicals including the application of probabilistic modelling. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002, 61: 11-18. 10.1079/PNS2001125.
Gibney MJ, van der Voet H: Introduction to the Monte Carlo project and the approach to the validation of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to selected food chemicals. Food Addit Contam. 2003, 20 (Suppl 1): S1-S7. 10.1080/0265203031000134947.
IPCS: Environmental Health Criteria 240: Principles and Methods for the Risk Assessment of Chemicals in Food. 2009, World Health Organization, Geneva.
Mayer B: How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century. Arch Toxicol. 2014, 88: 5-7. 10.1007/s00204-013-1127-0.
Ginzkey C, Kampfinger K, Friehs G, Kohler C, Hagen R, Richter E, Kleinsasser NH: Nicotine induces DNA damage in human salivary glands. Toxicol Lett. 2009, 184: 1-4. 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.09.009.
Ginzkey C, Steussloff G, Koehler C, Hackenberg S, Richter E, Hagen R, Kleinsasser NH: Nicotine causes genotoxic damage but is not metabolized during long-term exposure of human nasal miniorgan cultures. Toxicol Lett. 2014, 229: 303-310. 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.842.
Ginzkey C, Steussloff G, Koehler C, Burghartz M, Scherzed A, Hackenberg S, Hagen R, Kleinsasser NH: Nicotine derived genotoxic effects in human primary parotid gland cells as assessed in vitro by comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations test. Toxicol In Vitro. 2014, 28: 838-846. 10.1016/j.tiv.2014.03.012.
Catassi A, Servent D, Paleari L, Cesario A, Russo P: Multiple roles of nicotine on cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis: implications on lung carcinogenesis. Mutat Res. 2008, 659: 221-231. 10.1016/j.mrrev.2008.04.002.
Schroeder MJ, Hoffman AC: Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology. Tob Control. 2014, 23 (Suppl 2): ii30-ii35. 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051469.
FDA: CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Foods and Drugs. Chapter I. Subchapter B. Part 184 - Direct Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe. 2013, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
Lachenmeier DW, Steffen C, El-Atma O, Maixner S, Löbell-Behrends S, Kohl-Himmelseher M: What is a food and what is a medicinal product in the European Union? Use of the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology to define a threshold for “pharmacological action”. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012, 64: 286-295. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.08.017.
European Commission: E-cigarettes myth buster. 2014 [].
European Commission: E-cigarettes. 2014 [].
Electronic cigarettes: a systematic review of available studies on health risk assessment
Aziemah Zulkifli, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Najihah Zainol Abidin, Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Irniza Rasdi, Karmegam Karuppiah, Anita Abd Rahman
Reviews on Environmental Health
Determination of nicotine, glycerol, propylene glycol and water in electronic cigarette fluids using quantitative 1 H NMR
Michael D. Crenshaw, Margaret E. Tefft, Stephanie S. Buehler, Marielle C. Brinkman, Pamela I. Clark, Sydney M. Gordon
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry
Trace Metals Derived from Electronic Cigarette (ECIG) Generated Aerosol: Potential Problem of ECIG Devices That Contain Nickel
Dominic L. Palazzolo, Andrew P. Crow, John M. Nelson, Robert A. Johnson
Frontiers in Physiology
Key role of local acetaldehyde in upper GI tract carcinogenesis
Mikko Salaspuro
Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology
Local Acetaldehyde—An Essential Role in Alcohol-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinogenesis
Mikko Nieminen, Mikko Salaspuro
A Worldwide Yearly Survey of New Data in Adverse Drug Reactions
Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease
Phyllis Gordon, Patty Flanagan
Journal of Vascular Nursing
Effects of chronic inhalation of electronic cigarettes containing nicotine on glial glutamate transporters and α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in female CD-1 mice
Fawaz Alasmari, Laura E. Crotty Alexander, Jessica A. Nelson, Isaac T. Schiefer, Ellen Breen, Christopher A. Drummond, Youssef Sari
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
A Worldwide Yearly Survey of New Data in Adverse Drug Reactions
Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Mechanisms of toxicity and biomarkers of flavoring and flavor enhancing chemicals in emerging tobacco and non-tobacco products
Gurjot Kaur, Thivanka Muthumalage, Irfan Rahman
Toxicology Letters
“You have to keep fighting”: maintaining healthcare services and professionalism on the frontline of austerity in Greece
Angeliki Kerasidou, Patricia Kingori, Helena Legido-Quigley
International Journal for Equity in Health
Overview of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Systematic Review
Allison M. Glasser, Lauren Collins, Jennifer L. Pearson, Haneen Abudayyeh, Raymond S. Niaura, David B. Abrams, Andrea C. Villanti
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
The importance of inclusion of kinetic information in the extrapolation of high-to-low concentrations for human limit setting
Liesbeth Geraets, Marco J. Zeilmaker, Peter M.J. Bos
Toxicology Letters
Will chronic e-cigarette use cause lung disease?
Temperance R. Rowell, Robert Tarran
American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Concise Review: The Deleterious Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Usage and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Function and Implications for Cell-Based Therapies
Jordan M. Greenberg, Carlos M. Carballosa, Herman S. Cheung
STEM CELLS Translational Medicine
Electronic cigarettes—A review of the physiological health effects
Alyssa Zucchet, Grégory Schmaltz, Trevor A. Day
Sugar and Aldehyde Content in Flavored Electronic Cigarette Liquids
Pebbles Fagan, Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Eric T Moolchan, Kevin D Cassel, Adrian A Franke, Xingnan Li, Ian Pagano, Dennis R Trinidad, Kari-lyn K Sakuma, Kymberle Sterling, Dorothy Jorgensen, Tania Lynch, Crissy Kawamoto, Mignonne C Guy, Ian Lagua, Sarah Hanes, Linda A Alexander, Mark S Clanton, Camonia Graham-Tutt, Thomas Eissenberg
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
ALDH2-deficiency as genetic epidemiologic and biochemical model for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde
Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Mikko Salaspuro
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Flavored e-cigarette liquids and cinnamaldehyde impair respiratory innate immune cell function
Phillip W. Clapp, Erica A. Pawlak, Justin T. Lackey, James E. Keating, Steven L. Reeber, Gary L. Glish, Ilona Jaspers
American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
The Nicotine Content of a Sample of E-cigarette Liquid Manufactured in the United States
Barrett H. Raymond, Katreena Collette-Merrill, Roger G. Harrison, Sabrina Jarvis, Ryan Jay Rasmussen
Journal of Addiction Medicine
Rapid detection of toxic compounds in tobacco smoke condensates using high-resolution 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Jana Ticha, Christopher Wright
Analytical Methods
Comparative risk assessment of tobacco smoke constituents using the margin of exposure approach: the neglected contribution of nicotine
Claudia Baumung, Jürgen Rehm, Heike Franke, Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Scientific Reports
Dynamic measurement of newly formed carbonyl compounds in vapors from electronic cigarettes
Cecilia Sala, Claudio Medana, Raffaele Pellegrino, Riccardo Aigotti, Federica Dal Bello, Giancarlo Bianchi, Enrico Davoli
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Review on quantitation methods for hazardous pollutants released by e-cigarette (EC) smoking
Vasudha Bansal, Ki-Hyun Kim
TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry
Zwrot w uzależnieniach – Udział nauk biologicznych i społecznych w przeformułowaniu polityki wobec substancji psychoaktywnych Streszczenie debaty naukowej (marzec 2016)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
Reframing the science and policy of nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol – conclusions of the ALICE RAP Project
Peter Anderson, Virginia Berridge, Patricia Conrod, Robert Dudley, Matilda Hellman, Dirk Lachenmeier, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David Miller, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room, Laura Schmidt, Roger Sullivan, Tamyko Ysa, Antoni Gual
Predictors of oxidative stress and vascular function in an experimental study of tobacco versus electronic cigarettes: A post hoc analysis of the SUR-VAPES 1 Study
Simona Mastrangeli, Roberto Carnevale, Elena Cavarretta, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Mariangela Peruzzi, Antonino Marullo, Elena De Falco, Isotta Chimenti, Valentina Valenti, Christopher Bullen, Leonardo Roever, Giacomo Frati, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
Tobacco Induced Diseases
Chronic E-Cigarette Exposure Alters the Human Bronchial Epithelial Proteome
Arunava Ghosh, Raymond C. Coakley, Teresa Mascenik, Temperance R. Rowell, Eric S. Davis, Keith Rogers, Megan J. Webster, Hong Dang, Laura E. Herring, M. Flori Sassano, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Scott K. Van Buren, Lee M. Graves, Melissa A. Herman, Scott H. Randell, Neil E. Alexis, Robert Tarran
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Alcohol and mouth cancer
G. R. Ogden
Propylene glycol, a major electronic cigarette constituent, attenuates the adverse effects of high-dose nicotine as measured by intracranial self-stimulation in rats
Andrew C. Harris, Peter Muelken, Zach Haave, Yayi Swain, John R. Smethells, Mark G. LeSage
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Electronic Cigarettes: Impact on Lung Function and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Among Healthy Adults
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Muhammad Abdullah Ansary, Fahad Rayan Barayan, Abdulaziz Sulaiman Almusallam, Abdulrahman Muteb Almehaid, Nawaf Saad Alarifi, Thamer Abdulnasir Alsohaibani, Inam Zia
American Journal of Men's Health
Biomarkers of Exposure Specific to E-vapor Products Based on Stable-Isotope Labeled Ingredients
Anne Landmesser, Max Scherer, Nikola Pluym, Mohamadi Sarkar, Jeffery Edmiston, Reinhard Niessner, Gerhard Scherer
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Boiling points of the propylene glycol + glycerol system at 1 atmosphere pressure: 188.6–292 °C without and with added water or nicotine
Anna K. Duell, James F. Pankow, Samantha M. Gillette, David H. Peyton
Chemical Engineering Communications
Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Smoking Habits, Demographic Factors, and Respiratory Symptoms
Linnea Hedman, Helena Backman, Caroline Stridsman, Jenny A. Bosson, Magnus Lundbäck, Anne Lindberg, Eva Rönmark, Linda Ekerljung
JAMA Network Open
Presence of the Carcinogen N′-Nitrosonornicotine in Saliva of E-cigarette Users
Gabriela Bustamante, Bin Ma, Galina Yakovlev, Katrina Yershova, Chap Le, Joni Jensen, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Irina Stepanov
Chemical Research in Toxicology
Main and side stream effects of electronic cigarettes
E. Papaefstathiou, M. Stylianou, A. Agapiou
Journal of Environmental Management
Chronic exposure to e-cig aerosols during early development causes vascular dysfunction and offspring growth deficits
Marcus Orzabal, Emilie Lunde-Young, Josue Ramirez, Selene Howe, Vishal Naik, Jehoon Lee, Cristine Heaps, David Threadgill, Jayanth Ramadoss
Translational Research
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems or E-cigarettes: American College of Preventive Medicine's Practice Statement
Catherine Livingston, Randall Freeman, Victoria Costales, John Westhoff, Lee Caplan, Kevin Sherin, David Niebuhr
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Acute Effects of Heat‐Not‐Burn, Electronic Vaping, and Traditional Tobacco Combustion Cigarettes: The Sapienza University of Rome‐Vascular Assessment of Proatherosclerotic Effects of Smoking (SUR‐VAPES) 2 Randomized Trial
Giuseppe Biondi‐Zoccai, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Christopher Bullen, Cristina Nocella, Francesco Violi, Lorenzo Loffredo, Pasquale Pignatelli, Ludovica Perri, Mariangela Peruzzi, Antonino Marullo, Falco De, Isotta Chimenti, Vittoria Cammisotto, Valentina Valenti, Flaminia Coluzzi, Elena Cavarretta, Albino Carrizzo, Francesco Prati, Roberto Carnevale, Giacomo Frati
Journal of the American Heart Association