REVIEW PAPER
Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting
 
 
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Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California, USA
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
S Sussman
Preventive Medicine and Psychology and Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California/IPR, 1000 South Fremont, Unit 8, (Room 4124 in Building A-4), Alhambra, CA 91803, USA
Publish date: 2002-06-15
 
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2002;1(June):35
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms), than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics). The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19%) and contingency-based reinforcement (16%) programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels) of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%). Computer-based (expert system) programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate), as did school-based clinics (12%). There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs’ evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking) and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting process may include structuring the context of programming for youth, motivating quit attempts and reducing ambivalence about quitting, and making programming enjoyable as possible. There also is a need to help youth to sustain a quit-attempt. In this regard, one could provide ongoing support during the acute withdrawal period and teach youth social/life skills. Since there is little information currently available on use of nicotine replacement in young people, continued research in this arena might also be a useful focus for future work.
 
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Patricia Simon, Grace Kong, Dana A. Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Current Addiction Reports
 
17.
Smoking cessation with teenagers: The relationship between impulsivity, emotional problems, program retention and effectiveness
Lena Wegmann, Anneke Bühler, Mareike Strunk, Peter Lang, Dennis Nowak
Addictive Behaviors
 
18.
An exploratory randomized controlled trial of a novel high-school-based smoking cessation intervention for adolescent smokers using abstinence–contingent incentives and cognitive behavioral therapy
Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Dana A. Cavallo, Judith L. Cooney, Ty S. Schepis, Grace Kong, Thomas B. Liss, Amanda K. Liss, Thomas J. McMahon, Charla Nich, Theresa Babuscio, Bruce J. Rounsaville, Kathleen M. Carroll
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
 
19.
Design and Implementation of an Effective Telephone Counseling Intervention for Adolescent Smoking Cessation
Kathleen A. Kealey, Evette J. Ludman, Patrick M. Marek, Sue L. Mann, Jonathan B. Bricker, Arthur V. Peterson
JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
 
20.
Aging Images as a Motivational Trigger for Smoking Cessation in Young Women
Carine Weiss, Dirk Hanebuth, Paola Coda, Julia Dratva, Margit Heintz, Elisabeth Zemp Stutz
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
 
21.
Assessing attitudinal ambivalence towards smoking and its association with desire to quit among teen smokers
Isaac M. Lipkus, Kathryn I. Pollak, Colleen M. McBride, Rochelle Schwartz-Bloom, Pauline Lyna, Paul N. Bloom
Psychology & Health
 
22.
Youth Caught in Violation of Tobacco Purchase, Use, and Possession Laws
Leonard A. Jason, Steven B. Pokorny, Monica Adams, Yvonne Hunt, Praveena Gadiraju, Taylor Morello, Michael Schoeny, Crystal Dinwiddie
Behavior Modification
 
23.
Participant- and Study-Related Characteristics Predicting Treatment Completion and Study Retention in an Adolescent Smoking Cessation Trial
Susan Kalkhuis-Beam, Sarah L. Stevens, Agnieshka Baumritter, Elyse C. Carlson, Jonathan R. Pletcher, Daniel Rodriguez, Janet Audrain-McGovern
Journal of Adolescent Health
 
24.
Inhibition control impairments in adolescent smokers: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study
Junsen Yin, Kai Yuan, Dan Feng, Jiadong Cheng, Yangding Li, Chenxi Cai, Yanzhi Bi, Shi Sha, Xiaomin Shen, Ben Zhang, Ting Xue, Wei Qin, Dahua Yu, Xiaoqi Lu, Jie Tian
Brain Imaging and Behavior
 
25.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Not On Tobacco Program for Adolescent Smoking Cessation
Geri Dino, Kimberly Horn, Abdullahi Abdulkadri, Iftekhar Kalsekar, Steven Branstetter
Prevention Science
 
26.
Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition and Cigarette Smoking in Late Adolescence
Adriana Galván, Russell A Poldrack, Christine M Baker, Kristine M McGlennen, Edythe D London
Neuropsychopharmacology
 
27.
The Impact of Not on Tobacco on Teen Smoking Cessation
Kimberly Horn, Geri Dino, Iftekhar Kalsekar, Reema Mody
Journal of Adolescent Research
 
28.
Appalachian Teen Smokers: Not On Tobacco 15 Months Later
Kimberly A. Horn, Geri A. Dino, Iftekhar D. Kalsekar, Ancilla W. Fernandes
American Journal of Public Health
 
29.
Early onset tobacco cigarette smokers exhibit deficits in response inhibition and sustained attention
Yasmin Mashhoon, Jennifer Betts, Stacey L. Farmer, Scott E. Lukas
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
 
30.
Initial evaluation of a real-world self-help smoking cessation programme for adolescents and young adults
Reiner Hanewinkel, Gudrun Wiborg
Addictive Behaviors
 
31.
Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation
Susan J. Curry, Robin J. Mermelstein, Amy K. Sporer
Annual Review of Psychology
 
32.
The role of participants’ self-selected future smoking goals in adolescent smoking cessation interventions
Johannes Thrul, Mark Stemmler, Anneke Bühler, Michaela Goecke
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
 
33.
Cigarette reduction: An intervention for adolescent smokers
Karen Hanson, Emily Zylla, Sharon Allen, Zhongze Li, Dorothy K. Hatsukami
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
 
34.
Who Wants to Quit? Characteristics of American Indian Youth Who Seek Smoking Cessation Intervention
Kimberly Horn, N. Noerachmanto, Geri Dino, Karen Manzo, Missy Brayboy
Journal of Community Health
 
35.
Short-term effects of Project EX-4: A classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention program
Ping Sun, James Miyano, Louise Ann Rohrbach, Clyde W. Dent, Steve Sussman
Addictive Behaviors
 
36.
Integrating a School-Based Health Intervention in Times of High-Stakes Testing: Lessons Learned From Full Court Press
Merrill Eisenberg
Health Promotion Practice
 
37.
TABADO: "Evaluation of a smoking cessation program among Adolescents in Vocational Training Centers": Study protocol
Laetitia Minary, Hervé Martini, Nathalie Wirth, Francine Thouvenot, Dovi-Stéphanie Acouetey, Yves Martinet, Abraham Bohadana, Denis Zmirou-Navier, François Alla
BMC Public Health
 
38.
Theory-based processes that promote the remission of substance use disorders
Rudolf H. Moos
Clinical Psychology Review
 
39.
Self-initiated tobacco cessation and substance use outcomes among adolescents entering substance use treatment in a managed care organization
Cynthia I. Campbell, Felicia Chi, Stacy Sterling, Carolynn Kohn, Constance Weisner
Addictive Behaviors
 
40.
Motivating and helping smokers to stop smoking
John R. Hughes
Journal of General Internal Medicine
 
41.
Nicotine withdrawal symptoms following a quit attempt: An ecological momentary assessment study among adolescents
Rinka M. P. Van Zundert, Emiel A. Boogerd, Ad A. Vermulst, Rutger C. M. E. Engels
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
42.
Parental influence on adolescent smoking cessation: Is there a gender difference?
Grace Kong, Deepa Camenga, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Addictive Behaviors
 
43.
Smoking-related self-efficacy, beliefs, and intention: Assessing factorial validity and structural relationships in 9th–12th grade current smokers
Kymberle Landrum Sterling, Pamela M. Diamond, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Unto Pallonen, Kentya H. Ford, Alfred L. McAlister
Addictive Behaviors
 
44.
A school nurse-delivered adolescent smoking cessation intervention: A randomized controlled trial
Lori Pbert, Stavroula K. Osganian, Diane Gorak, Susan Druker, George Reed, Katherine M. O'Neill, Anne Sheetz
Preventive Medicine
 
45.
Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender
Laura MacPherson, Mark G. Myers
Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
 
46.
A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs
Ivana T. Croghan, Heather M. Campbell, Christi A. Patten, Gary A. Croghan, Darrell R. Schroeder, Paul J. Novotny
Journal of School Health
 
47.
Tobacco cessation interventions for young people
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
 
48.
Predicting smoking reduction among adolescents using an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour
Inger Synn⊘ve Moan, Jostein Rise
Psychology & Health
 
49.
Early onset cigarette smokers exhibit greater P300 reactivity to smoking-related stimuli and report greater craving
Yasmin Mashhoon, Jennifer Betts, Stacey L. Farmer, Scott E. Lukas
Brain Research
 
50.
Stoppen met roken onder adolescenten: niet zomaar een ‘lucky strike’!
R. M. P. van Zundert
Verslaving
 
51.
Beliefs and attitudes regarding smoking among young adult Latinos: A pilot study
Randi E. Foraker, Christi A. Patten, Keila N. Lopez, Ivana T. Croghan, Janet L. Thomas
Preventive Medicine
 
52.
Potential effects of active parental consent: Enrolling teen smokers into a school-based cessation program
Kimberly A. Horn, Steven A. Branstetter, Geri A. Dino, Traci D. Jarrett, Cindy Tworek, Jianjun Zhang
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
53.
Smoking cessation and characteristics of success and failure among female high-school smokers
Jung Ae KIM, Chung Yul LEE, Eun Sun LIM, Gwang Suk KIM
Japan Journal of Nursing Science
 
54.
Internally-Developed Teen Smoking Cessation Programs: Characterizing the Unique Features of Programs Developed by Community-Based Organizations
Kymberle Sterling, Susan Curry, Sherry Emery, Amy Sporer, Robin Mermelstein, Michael Berbaum, Brian Flay
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
 
55.
The role of smoking-cessation-specific parenting in adolescent smoking-specific cognitions and readiness to quit
Rinka M. P. van Zundert, Monique O. M. van de Ven, Rutger C. M. E. Engels, Roy Otten, Regina J. J. M. van den Eijnden
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
 
56.
Beyond Reach and Effectiveness
Andrew Anesetti-Rothermel, N. Noerachmanto, Kimberly Horn, Geri Dino
Health Promotion Practice
 
57.
Five-year prospective prediction of self-initiated quitting of cigarette smoking of high-risk youth
Steve Sussman, Clyde W. Dent
Addictive Behaviors
 
58.
Patterns and Predictors of Quitting Among Youth Quitline Callers in Hong Kong
David C. N. Wong, Sophia S. C. Chan, Daniel Y. T. Fong, Angela Y. M. Leung, Debbie O. B. Lam, Tai-Hing Lam
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
59.
Gender Influences in Tobacco Use and Cessation Interventions
Joan L. Bottorff, Rebecca Haines-Saah, John L. Oliffe, Gayl Sarbit
Nursing Clinics of North America
 
60.
Project EX — A teen smoking cessation initial study in Wuhan, China
Hong Zheng, Steve Sussman, Xinguang Chen, Yuanhong Wang, Jiang Xia, Jie Gong, Chunhong Liu, Jianguo Shan, Jennifer Unger, C.Anderson Johnson
Addictive Behaviors
 
61.
Healthcare providers’ use of brief clinical interventions for adolescent smokers
Karen B. Friend, Suzanne Colby
Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy
 
62.
Tobacco cessation interventions for young people
Alan Stanton, Gill Grimshaw
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
 
63.
Tobacco use and psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents in substance abuse treatment
Jennifer Cole, Erin Stevenson, Robert Walker, T.K. Logan
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
 
64.
Rauchstopp bei Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen
Anneke Bühler, Johannes Thrul
SUCHT
 
65.
Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms among Occasional Smokers
Saadhna Panday, S. Priscilla Reddy, Robert A.C. Ruiter, Erik Bergström, Hein de Vries
Journal of Adolescent Health
 
66.
Changes in readiness to quit and self-efficacy among adolescents receiving a brief office intervention for smoking cessation
Christi A. Patten, Paul A. Decker, Ellen A. Dornelas, Jeremy Barbagallo, Emily Rock, Kenneth P. Offord, Richard D. Hurt, Suzanne Pingree
Psychology, Health & Medicine
 
67.
Integrated Smoking Cessation and Binge Drinking Intervention for Young Adults: a Pilot Investigation
Steven C. Ames, Chudley E. Werch, Gretchen E. Ames, Lori J. Lange, Darrell R. Schroeder, Andrew C. Hanson, Christi A. Patten
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
 
68.
A Review of Alcoholics Anonymous/ Narcotics Anonymous Programs for Teens
Steve Sussman
Evaluation & the Health Professions
 
69.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gill Grimshaw, Alan Stanton, Gill Grimshaw
 
70.
Addressing challenges in adolescent smoking cessation: Design and baseline characteristics of the HS Group-Randomized trial
Jingmin Liu, Arthur V. Peterson, Kathleen A. Kealey, Sue L. Mann, Jonathan B. Bricker, Patrick M. Marek
Preventive Medicine
 
71.
Auricular acupressure combined with multimedia instruction or alone for quitting smoking in young adults: A quasi-experimental study
Yi-Zen Wang, Hsing-Hsia Chen, Mei-Ling Yeh, Shy-Der Lin
International Journal of Nursing Studies
 
72.
Proactive telephone counseling for adolescent smokers: Comparing regular smokers with infrequent and occasional smokers on treatment receptivity, engagement, and outcomes
Jaimee L. Heffner, Kathleen A. Kealey, Patrick M. Marek, Jonathan B. Bricker, Evette J. Ludman, Arthur V. Peterson
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
 
73.
The challenges of getting youth cessation services right
Addiction
 
74.
Exploring an effective tobacco prevention programme for Indian adolescents
A. Verma, P. Muddaiah, A. Krishna Murthy, R. Sanga
Public Health
 
75.
Tobacco use in youth with mental illnesses
Tamara DeHay, Chad Morris, Mandy Graves May, Karen Devine, Jeanette Waxmonsky
Journal of Behavioral Medicine
 
76.
Predicting Initiation of Smoking Cessation Treatment and Outcome Among Adolescents Using Stressful Life Events and Coping Style
Ty S. Schepis, Dana A. Cavallo, Grace Kong, Thomas Liss, Amanda Liss, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Substance Abuse
 
77.
Nicotine and the adolescent brain
Menglu Yuan, Sarah J. Cross, Sandra E. Loughlin, Frances M. Leslie
The Journal of Physiology
 
78.
How much unsuccessful quitting activity is going on among adult smokers? Data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country cohort survey
Ron Borland, Timea R. Partos, Hua-Hie Yong, K. Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland
Addiction
 
79.
Replicating cluster subtypes for the prevention of adolescent smoking and alcohol use
Steven F. Babbin, Wayne F. Velicer, Andrea L. Paiva, Leslie Ann D. Brick, Colleen A. Redding
Addictive Behaviors
 
80.
A Scotland-wide pilot programme of smoking cessation services for young people: process and outcome evaluation
Wendy Gnich, Christine Sheehy, Amanda Amos, Mark Bitel, Stephen Platt
Addiction
 
81.
Overview of systematic reviews on the health-related effects of government tobacco control policies
Steven J. Hoffman, Charlie Tan
BMC Public Health
 
82.
Are you in or out? Recruitment of adolescent smokers into a behavioral smoking cessation intervention
Johannes Thrul, Mark Stemmler, Michaela Goecke, Anneke Bühler
Addictive Behaviors
 
83.
A National Survey of Tobacco Cessation Programs for Youths
Susan J. Curry, Sherry Emery, Amy K. Sporer, Robin Mermelstein, Brian R. Flay, Michael Berbaum, Richard B. Warnecke, Timothy Johnson, Paul Mowery, Jennifer Parsons, Lori Harmon, Lisa Hund, Henry Wells
American Journal of Public Health
 
84.
Six-month and one-year effects of Project EX-4: A classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention program
Steve Sussman, James Miyano, Louise Ann Rohrbach, Clyde W. Dent, Ping Sun
Addictive Behaviors
 
85.
Effects of Youth Tobacco Access and Possession Policy Interventions on Heavy Adolescent Smokers
Leonard Jason, Steven Pokorny, Monica Adams, Annie Topliff, Courtney Harris, Yvonne Hunt
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
 
86.
"Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention
Maria Nilsson, Maria Emmelin
BMC Public Health
 
87.
Motivations for genetic testing for lung cancer risk among young smokers
Suzanne C O'Neill, Isaac M Lipkus, Saskia C Sanderson, James Shepperd, Sharron Docherty, Colleen M McBride
Tobacco Control
 
88.
Multiple behavior interventions to prevent substance abuse and increase energy balance behaviors in middle school students
Wayne F Velicer, Colleen A Redding, Andrea L Paiva, Leanne M Mauriello, Bryan Blissmer, Karin Oatley, Kathryn S Meier, Steven F Babbin, Heather McGee, James O Prochaska, Caitlin Burditt, Anne C Fernandez
Translational Behavioral Medicine
 
89.
Group-Randomized Trial of a Proactive, Personalized Telephone Counseling Intervention for Adolescent Smoking Cessation
Arthur V. Peterson, Kathleen A. Kealey, Sue L. Mann, Patrick M. Marek, Evette J. Ludman, Jingmin Liu, Jonathan B. Bricker
JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
 
90.
Beyond quitting: Predictors of teen smoking cessation, reduction and acceleration following a school-based intervention
Steven A. Branstetter, Kimberly Horn, Geri Dino, Jianjun Zhang
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
 
91.
Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based versus brief office intervention for adolescent smoking cessation
Christi A. Patten, Ivana T. Croghan, Tracy M. Meis, Paul A. Decker, Suzanne Pingree, Robert C. Colligan, Ellen A. Dornelas, Kenneth P. Offord, Eric W. Boberg, Rhonda K. Baumberger, Richard D. Hurt, David H. Gustafson
Patient Education and Counseling
 
92.
The Neuroscience of Adolescence
Adriana Galván
 
93.
Addiction Medicine
Pallav Pokhrel, David S. Black, Admin Zaman, Nathaniel R. Riggs, Steve Sussman
 
94.
Stepped Care and e-Health
Michael E. Levin, Jason Lillis
 
95.
Human Participants Challenges in Youth-Focused Research: Perspectives and Practices of IRB Administrators
Diane K. Wagener, Amy K. Sporer, Mary Simmerling, Jennifer L. Flome, Christina An, Susan J. Curry
Ethics & Behavior
 
96.
Web-Based Contingency Management for Adolescent Tobacco Smokers: A Clinical Trial
Arit Harvanko, Stacey Slone, Brent Shelton, Jesse Dallery, Sherecce Fields, Brady Reynolds
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
 
97.
Tobacco cessation mobile app intervention (Just Kwit! study): protocol for a pilot randomized controlled pragmatic trial
Kar-Hai Chu, César G. Escobar-Viera, Sara J. Matheny, Esa M. Davis, Brian A. Primack
Trials
 
98.
Attitudes and Interest in Technology-Based Treatment and the Remote Monitoring of Smoking among Adolescents and Emerging Adults
Erin McClure, Nathaniel Baker, Matthew Carpenter, Frank Treiber, Kevin Gray
Journal of Smoking Cessation
 
99.
Encyclopedia of Health Psychology
Neil Schneiderman, Gary Schwartz, Katherine Raichle, Craig Ewart, Vicki Helgeson, Erica Johnsen, Linda Cameron, Sheleigh Lawler, Arthur Stone, Joan Broderick, Jamie Cvengros, Stephen Wonderlich, Patricia Freiburger, Andrew Beer, Karen Glanz, Alan Christensen, Kathleen Diviak, Steve Sussman, Silvana Skara, Jerry Suls, Frederick Gibbons, Meg Gerrard, Elizabeth Pomery, Carolyn Cutrona, Kelli Gardner, Barbara Sarason, Beth Klipping, Nancy Adler, Heidi Beckman, David Spiegel, C. Taylor, Peter Vanable, Jamie Cvengros, Susan Folkman, Michael Kavan, J. Dale, Rochelle Bergstrom, David Wittrock, Mark Litt, John Barefoot, Thomas Haney, Albert Stunkard, LaRicka Wingate, Jessica Brown, Thomas Joiner, W. Davies, Jennifer Specht, Steven Palmer
 
100.
Stoppen met roken bij adolescenten: de rol van intentie om te stoppen, nicotineafhankelijkheid en het roken van ouders en vrienden
Marloes Kleinjan, Rutger Engels, Jan Leeuwe, Johannes Brug, Rinka Zundert, Regina Eijnden
Psychologie en Gezondheid
 
101.
Factors Associated with the Adoption of Tobacco Cessation Programmes in Schools
Melissa Little, Pallav Pokhrel, Steve Sussman, Karen Derefinko, Zoran Bursac, Louise Rohrbach
Journal of Smoking Cessation
 
102.
Contingency management for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers.
Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Amy Duhig, Sherry McKee, Thomas McMahon, Thomas Liss, Amanda McFetridge, Dana Cavallo
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
 
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