RESEARCH PAPER
Effects of smoking on disease risk among South Korean adults
Youngmee Kim 1,  
 
 
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1
Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea
2
Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, International Health Care Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Publish date: 2018-10-02
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(October):45
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Tobacco smoking is currently considered to be the main preventable cause of death and disability worldwide. We examined the magnitude of cigarette smoking effects on major smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), among South Korean adults using nationwide and representative survey data.

Methods:
We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted over a 9-year period from 2007 to 2015 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between smoking status and all outcomes of interest. A total of 24072 participants ≥40 years of age were sampled in the current study.

Results:
The study results were as follows: 1) Current and former smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status; 2) The prevalence of major smoking-related diseases was significantly higher in former and current smokers compared to non-smokers; 3) The odd ratios of developing COPD were 3.49 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.44–5.00], 2.41 (95% CI: 1.68–3.45) and 3.45 (95% CI: 2.20–5.40) among male current smokers, male ex-smokers and female current smokers, respectively. The odd ratio of developing CVD was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.05–3.86) in male ex-smokers. Otherwise, no significant associations between smoking and other diseases were observed after controlling the sociodemographic and clinical factors; and 4) The risk for COPD tends to be related to the smoking amount and weaning after quitting smoking.

Conclusions:
Our study showed that COPD had the strongest association with current and former smoking in both male and female smokers after controlling for all potential confounding factors among major smoking-related diseases.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Won-Kyung Cho   
Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, International Health Care Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, South Korea
 
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