RESEARCH PAPER
Dispositional mindfulness, affect and tobacco dependence among treatment naive cigarette smokers in Brazil
 
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1
Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil
3
Departamento de Psicologia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil
4
School of Graduate Psychology, Pacific University, Hillsboro, United States
5
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Kansas, Kansas City, United States
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Isabel Weiss de Souza   

Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Botucatu 862, 1º andar, Edifício Ciências Biomédicas, Vila Clementino, 04023062 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Publish date: 2019-04-08
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2019;17(April):28
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The current study examined associations between affective and smoking-related factors, and dispositional mindfulness among smokers seeking enrollment in a cessation program in Brazil.

Methods:
Participants were first-time treatment seeking adult smokers (N=90) on a waiting list for a government-sponsored cessation program. Pearson’s bivariate correlations assessed relationships between the primary outcome variable (dispositional mindfulness) and each explanatory variable (nicotine dependence, depression, anxiety, and state positive/negative affect). Linear regression analyses evaluated the unique contribution of each explanatory variable when controlling for the others.

Results:
The sample (N=90) was predominantly female (n=71) and most (79%) had 11 or fewer years of education. In the final regression model, a total of 36.2% of the variance in dispositional mindfulness was accounted for by positive affect (B=0.81, p<0.001), negative affect (B= -0.44, p=0.02), and level of nicotine dependence (B=1.48, p=0.007).

Conclusions:
Positive and negative affect, as well as nicotine dependence, account for a significant and sizable amount of the variance in dispositional mindfulness. Future mindfulness interventions for smoking cessation should be designed to address individual differences in affect, as well as nicotine dependence, in order to better tailor treatment to address baseline differences in mindfulness.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to SECOPTT, the service of tobacco treatment of the City Hall of Juiz de Fora (MG), and the Núcleo de Pesquisa sobre Saúde e Uso de Substâncias (Center of Research on Health and Substance Use -Nepsis/Unifesp) for the support provided to our research team during the study, and to the Department of Psychology of the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF) for their collaboration in allowing Psychology undergraduate students to contribute with data collection, data bank construction and data analyses.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
Authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
FUNDING
This work was supported by Public call MCT/CNPq/MEC/CAPES (Transverse action nº 06/2011); Casadinho/Procad (Process nº 552452/2011-4); Programa de Apoio a Núcleos Emergentes de Pesquisa (PRONEM)/FAPEMIG (Process nº APQ-04279-10); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) – Project ‘Avaliação da efetividade do Programa de Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) como estratégia adjunta ao tratamento da dependência de tabaco’ (Process nº 2013/02316-5); Development line – Regular programs/research aid (Duration: 01/10/2013 – 30/09/2015); Doctoral Fellowship CNPq (Project nº 870470/1997-3 – Process nº 141310/2013- 8, Duration: 01/03/2013 – 31/01/2016).
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS
IWS conceptualized the project, elaborated the project, collected and analyzed data, and elaborated the main text. EHK has helped elaborate the project, gave important suggestions on results, discussion of results and contributed for elaboration of the main text. LAR has helped elaborate the project and with data acquisition and analysis, discussion of results and prepared the tables. BM has helped with data acquisition. SB has helped elaborate the project, discussion of results, gave important suggestions on results, contributed for elaboration of the main text and revised the text for English grammar. KPR has helped elaborate the project, discussion of results, gave important suggestions on results, contributed for elaboration of the main text and revised the text for English grammar. LMAS helped elaborate the experimental design, helped with data acquisition and analysis, and main text elaboration, and gave important suggestions on results and discussion. ARN has coordinated and contributed to elaborate the project and experimental design, helped with bibliographical revision, helped with all the statistical analyses, discussion of results and main text review.
PROVENANCE AND PEER REVIEW
Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
 
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