Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample
Pramil N Singh 1, 2, 3  
,   Daravuth Yel 4,   They Kheam 5,   Glorietta Hurd 2,   Jayakaran S. Job 2, 3
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Center for Health Research, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Population Medicine, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, USA
Department of Global Health, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, USA
World Health Organization/Tobacco Free Initiative, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Pramil N Singh   

Center for Health Research, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Submission date: 2012-12-29
Acceptance date: 2013-03-13
Publication date: 2013-03-27
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2013;11(March):8
Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia.

In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15 years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia.

Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR = 1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR = 1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR = 1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]).

In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years).

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