Association of active/passive smoking and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene with poor sleep quality: A cross-sectional survey among Chinese male enterprise workers
Bo Zhou 1
Yifei Ma 2, 3
Fu Wei 2
Li'e Zhang 2
Xiaohong Chen 4
Suwan Peng 2
Feng Xiong 2
Xiaowu Peng 5
Bushra NiZam 2
Yunfeng Zou 2  
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Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China
Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China
AIDS Prevention and Control Institute, Liuzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Liuzhou, China
Department of Physical Examination, Guangxi Institute of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Nanning, China
Center for Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou, China
Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China
Yunfeng Zou   

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China
Kaiyong Huang   

Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China
Publish date: 2018-05-22
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(May):23
Tobacco use has been implicated as an important factor for poor sleep quality. However, in most studies, the sleep quality of smokers was only assessed though a self-reported questionnaire, without measuring any internal biomarkers that reflect the levels of tobacco exposure. We examined the association of active and passive smoking with sleep quality, assessed smoking exposure using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) as an internal biomarker, and further explored the relationship between 1-HOP and sleep quality.

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Liuzhou city, Guangxi, China. A total of 1787 male enterprise workers were enrolled. The smoking attribute data were collected by self-reported questionnaire, and individual sleep quality was evaluated through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The concentration of urinary 1-HOP was measured by highperformance liquid chromatography.

Compared with non-smoking, active smoking and passive smoking were significantly associated with long sleep latency (odds ratio, OR=1.84, 95% confidence interval, CI=1.28–2.64; 1.45, 1.00–2.11, respectively), short sleep duration (OR=2.72, 95% CI=1.45–5.09; 1.94, 1.01–3.71, respectively), daytime dysfunction (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.10–2.17; 1.44, 1.02–2.03, respectively), and overall poor sleep quality with PSQI total score >5 (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.05–1.88; 1.34, 1.00–1.79, respectively). Compared with non-smokers, active smokers had higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations that were significant (p=0.004), while passive smokers had no significant difference in urinary 1-OHP concentration (p=0.344). The high concentration group was significantly associated with daytime dysfunction and overall poor sleep quality with PSQI total score >5 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI=1.06–2.81; 1.76, 1.18–2.63, respectively).

Both active smoking and passive smoking are risk factors for poor sleep quality among Chinese male enterprise workers. Active smokers had significantly higher levels of urinary 1-OHP than non-smokers, and high concentration of 1-OHP was associated with daytime dysfunction and overall poor sleep quality.

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