Are there hardened smokers in low- and middle-income countries? Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey
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Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, United States
Shaoman Yin   

Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Rd, NE Mailstop G-37, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States
Publish date: 2019-02-18
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2019;17(February):11
Hardened smokers are those who do not want to quit, or find it very difficult to quit. This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of hardened smokers in 19 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

We used nationally representative data from 19 LMICs that conducted the Global Adult Tobacco Survey during 2009–2013. Our analysis is restricted to adults aged ≥25 years. Hardened smokers were defined as daily smokers who smoked for 5 or more years, and who reported the following: no quit attempt in the past year that lasted 24 or more hours; no interest in quitting, or not planning to quit in the next year; and currently smoked within 30 minutes after waking. For each country, the prevalence of hardened smokers was analyzed by sex, age, residence (urban or rural), educational attainment, wealth index, and knowledge of the danger of smoking. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess predictors of hardened smoking.

Prevalence of hardened smokers among adults (aged ≥25 years) ranged from 1.1% (Panama) to 14.3% (Russia). Among current smokers (aged ≥25 years), the proportion of hardened smokers ranged from 7.5% (Mexico) to 38.4% (Romania). Adjusted odds of hardened smokers were significantly higher for males (9 of 19 countries), smokers aged 65 years or older (12 of 19 countries), adults with lower educational attainment (9 of 19 countries), and no knowledge of the danger of smoking (8 of 19 countries).

The spectrum of smokers in the LMICs includes hardened smokers and prevalence varies across population groups. Full implementation of proven tobacco control strategies could reduce hardened smoking in LMICs.

Authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none was reported.
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