RESEARCH PAPER
Analysis of circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in tobacco smokers and non-smokers
RM Palmer 1  
,  
RF Wilson 2
,  
PY Coward 2
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, King's College London, London, UK
2
Dental Clinical Research, King's College London, UK
3
Department of Oral Biology, University of Manitoba, Canada
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
RM Palmer   

Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Guy's, Floor 21, Guy's Hospital Tower, King's College London, London, SE1 9RT, UK
Publish date: 2003-06-15
 
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2003;1(June):157
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
IGF-1 and the major serum IGF-1 binding protein, IGFBP-3, are under extensive investigation as potential prognostic markers of specific malignancies and vascular diseases. However, there is conflicting evidence that tobacco smoking may influence systemic concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3.

Subjects and methods:
Serum concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were measured in 20 smokers and 20 non-smokers, matched for age and gender. Serum concentrations of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, and ICAM-1, known to exhibit a dose-dependent relationship with cotinine, were also assayed.

Results:
There was no difference between the systemic concentrations of IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 found in smokers and non-smokers (IGF-1: mean [s.d]; 104 [29] vs 101 [24] ng ml-1, respectively; and IGFBP-3: 2562 [522] vs 2447 [570] ng ml-1, respectively). Similarly, there was no correlation between serum cotinine and IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations in smokers. Soluble ICAM-1 concentrations were significantly increased in smokers, compared to non-smokers (mean [s.d]; 258 [60] vs 194 [50] ng ml-1, respectively; p = 0.002).

Conclusions:
There was no relationship noted between tobacco smoking and either IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. These data suggest that smoking would not appear to be a major confounder of the reported clinical associations between IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratios and specific disease entities.

 
REFERENCES (38)
1.
Phillips LS, Harp JB, Goldstein S, Klein J, Pao CI: Regulation and action of insulin-like growth factors at the cellular level. Proceedings of the Nutrition on Society. 1990, 49: 451-458.
 
2.
Jones JI, Clemmons DR: Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins: biological actions. Endocrine Reviews. 1995, 16: 3-34.
 
3.
Boulware SD, Tamborlane WV, Matthews LS, Sherwin RS: Diverse effects of insulin-like growth factor I on glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. Americal Journal of Physiology. 1992, 262: E130-E133.
 
4.
Janssen JA, Lamberts SW: The role of IGF-I in the development of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: is prevention possible?. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2002, 146: 467-477. 10.1530/eje.0.1460467.
 
5.
Rennert NJ, Caprio S, Sherwin RS: Insulin-like growth factor I inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but does not impair glucose metabolism in normal humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1993, 76: 804-806. 10.1210/jc.76.3.804.
 
6.
Binoux M: The IGF system in metabolism regulation. Diabetes and Metabolism. 1995, 21: 330-337.
 
7.
Janssen JA, Lamberts SW: Is the measurement of free IGF-I more indicative than that of total IGF-I in the evaluation of the biological activity of the GH/IGF-I axis?. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 1999, 22: 313-315.
 
8.
Kelley KM, Oh Y, Gargosky SE, Gucev Z, Matsumoto T, Hwa V, Ng L, Simpson DM, Rosenfeld RG: Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and their regulatory dynamics. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 1996, 28: 619-637. 10.1016/1357-2725(96)00005-2.
 
9.
Gibson TL, Cohen P: Inflammation-related neutrophil proteases, cathepsin G and elastase, function as insulin-like growth factor binding protein proteases. Growth Hormone and IGF Research. 1999, 9: 241-253. 10.1054/ghir.1999.0115.
 
10.
Fowlkes JL, Thrailkill KM, Serra DM, Suzuki K, Nagase H: Matrix metalloproteinases as insulin-like growth factor binding protein-degrading proteinases. Progress in Growth Factor Research. 1995, 6: 255-263. 10.1016/0955-2235(95)00017-8.
 
11.
Loechel F, Fox JW, Murphy G, Albrechtsen R, Wewer UM: ADAM 12-S cleaves IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 and is inhibited by TIMP-3. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2000, 278: 511-515. 10.1006/bbrc.2000.3835.
 
12.
Gillberg P, Olofsson H, Mallmin H, Blum WF, Ljunghall S, Nilsson AG: Bone Mineral Density in Femoral Neck is Positively Correlated to Circulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I and IGF-Binding Protein (IGFBP)-3 in Swedish Men. Calcified Tissue International. 2002, 70: 22-29. 10.1007/s002230020048.
 
13.
Celiker R, Arslan S: Comparison of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone levels in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Rheumatology International. 2000, 19: 205-208. 10.1007/s002960000058.
 
14.
Gamero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Delmas PD: Low serum IGF-1 and occurrence of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. Lancet. 2000, 355: 898-899. 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)05463-X.
 
15.
Munoz-Torres M, Mezquita-Raya P, Lopez-Rodriguez F, Torres-Vela E, de Dios Luna J, Escobar-Jimenez F: The contribution of IGF-I to skeletal integrity in postmenopausal women. Clinical Endocrinology. 2001, 55: 759-766. 10.1046/j.1365-2265.2001.01390.x.
 
16.
Bustin SA, Jenkins PJ: The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis and colorectal cancer. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 2001, 7: 447-454. 10.1016/S1471-4914(01)02104-9.
 
17.
Butt AJ, Williams AC: IGFBP-3 and apoptosis–a license to kill?. Apoptosis. 2001, 6: 199-205. 10.1023/A:1011388710719.
 
18.
Baxter RC: Signalling pathways involved in antiproliferative effects of IGFBP-3: a review. Molecular Pathology. 2001, 54: 145-148. 10.1136/mp.54.3.145.
 
19.
Lukanova A, Toniolo P, Akhmedkhanov A, Biessy C, Haley NJ, Shore RE, Riboli E, Rinaldi S, Kaaks R: A prospective study of insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-binding proteins-1, -2 and -3 and lung cancer risk in women. International Journal of Cancer. 2001, 92: 888-892. 10.1002/ijc.1265.
 
20.
Lukanova A, Toniolo P, Akhmedkhanov A, Hunt K, Rinaldi S, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Haley NJ, Riboli E, Stattin P, Lundin E, Kaaks : A cross-sectional study of IGF-I determinants in women. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2001, 10: 443-452. 10.1097/00008469-200110000-00008.
 
21.
Yu H, Spitz MR, Mistry J, Gu J, Hong WK, Wu X: Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and lung cancer risk: a case-control analysis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1999, 91: 151-156. 10.1093/jnci/91.2.151.
 
22.
Bayes-Genis A, Conover CA, Schwartz RS: The insulin-like growth factor axis: a review of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Circulation Research. 2000, 86: 125-130.
 
23.
Janssen JA, Stolk RP, Pols HA, Grobbee DE, Lamberts SW: Serum total IGF-1, free IGF-1, and IGFB-1 levels in an elderly population: relation to cardiovascular risk factors and disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 1998, 8: 277-282.
 
24.
Motomura N, Lou H, Orskov H, Ramwell PW, Foegh ML: Exposure of vascular allografts to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increases vascular expression of IGF-I ligand and receptor protein and accelerates arteriosclerosis in rats. Transplantation. 1998, 65: 1024-1030. 10.1097/00007890-199804270-00003.
 
25.
Schuler-Lüttmann S, Mönnig G, Enbergs A, Schulte H, Breithardt G, Assmann G, Kerber S, von Eckardstein A: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 is associated with the presence and extent of coronary arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2000, 20: 10e-15e.
 
26.
Schwab S, Spranger M, Krempien S, Hacke W, Bettendorf M: Plasma insulin-like growth factor I and IGF binding protein 3 levels in patients with acute cerebral ischemic injury. Stroke. 1997, 28: 1744-1748.
 
27.
Kaklamani VG, Linos A, Kaklamani E, Markaki I, Mantzoros C: Dietary fat and carbohydrates are independently associated with circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 concentrations in healthy adults. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1999, 17: 813-817.
 
28.
Mucci LA, Tamimi R, Lagiou P, Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Spanos E, Trichopoulos D: Are dietary influences on the risk of prostate cancer mediated through the insulin-like growth factor system?. BJU International. 2001, 87: 814-820. 10.1046/j.1464-410x.2001.02191.x.
 
29.
Probst-Hensch NM, Yuan JM, Stanczyk FZ, Gao YT, Ross RK, Yu MC: IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 in prediagnostic serum: association with colorectal cancer in a cohort of Chinese men in Shanghai. British Journal of Cancer. 2001, 85: 1695-1699. 10.1054/bjoc.2001.2172.
 
30.
Renehan AG, Gleeson H, Atkin WS, O'Dwyer ST, Shalet SM: Cigarette smoking exposure, serum insulin-like growth factors, and cancer risk: A population-based study. Endocrine Abstracts. 2002, 3: P128-(Abstract).
 
31.
Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Wilhelmsen L, Lappas G, Rosen T, Lindstedt G, Lundberg PA, Bengtsson BA: Serum insulin-like growth factor I in a random population sample of men and women: relation to age, sex, smoking habits, coffee consumption and physical activity, blood pressure and concentrations of plasma lipids, fibrinogen, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin. Clinical Endocrinology. 1994, 41: 351-357. 10.1111/j.1365-2265.1994.tb02556.x.
 
32.
Scott DA, Todd DH, Coward PY, Wilson RF, Odell EW, Poston RN, Matthews JP, Palmer RM: The acute influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule expression on monocytes and neutrophils and on circulating adhesion molecule levels in vivo. Addiction Biology. 2000, 5: 195-205. 10.1080/13556210050003793.
 
33.
Palmer RM, Stapleton JA, Wilson RF, Sutherland G, Coward PY, Scott DA: Nicotine replacement therapy does not compromise a rapid recovery in circulating adhesion molecule profiles (ICAM-1, CD44v5, CD44v6) in quitting smokers. European Journal of Clinical Investigation.
 
34.
Feyerabend C, Russell MA: A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic method for the determination of cotinine and nicotine in biological fluids. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 1990, 42: 450-452.
 
35.
Jarvis MJ, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Feyerabend C, Vesey C, Saloojee Y: Comparison of tests used to distinguish smokers from non-smokers. American Journal of Public Health. 1987, 77: 1435-1438. 10.2105/AJPH.77.11.1435.
 
36.
Koundouros E, Odell E, Coward PY, Wilson RF, Palmer RM: Soluble adhesion molecules in serum of smokers and non-smokers, with and without periodontitis. Journal of Periodontal Research. 1996, 31: 596-599. 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1996.tb00525.x.
 
37.
Coutant R, Boux de Casson F, Douay O, Mathieu E, Rouleau S, Beringue F, Gillard P, Limal JM, Descamps P: Relationships between placental GH concentration and maternal smoking, newborn gender, and maternal leptin: possible implications for birth weight. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2001, 86: 4854-489. 10.1210/jc.86.10.4854.
 
38.
Scott DA, Palmer RM, Stapleton JA: Validation of smoking status in clinical research into inflammatory periodontal disease. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2001, 28: 715-722. 10.1034/j.1600-051X.2001.280801.x.
 
 
CITATIONS (2):
1.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 myocardial expression decreases in chronic alcohol consumption
Francesc Borrisser-Pairó, Emilia Antúnez, Ester Tobías, Joaquim Fernández-Solà
Regenerative Medicine Research
 
2.
Intrauterine smoke exposure deregulates lung function, pulmonary transcriptomes, and in particular insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in a sex-specific manner
Stefan Dehmel, Petra Nathan, Sabine Bartel, Natalia El-Merhie, Hagen Scherb, Katrin Milger, Gerrit John-Schuster, Ali Oender Yildirim, Machteld Hylkema, Martin Irmler, Johannes Beckers, Bianca Schaub, Oliver Eickelberg, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann
Scientific Reports
 
eISSN:1617-9625