REVIEW PAPER
A systematic review of smoker and non-smoker perceptions of visually unappealing cigarette sticks
 
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College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
Publish date: 2018-01-31
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(January):2
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
Smoking
 
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
Cigarette stick appearance can significantly contribute to perceptions of cigarette taste, harm, and appeal, and may be modified to reduce positive perceptions of cigarettes and other tobacco products. A systematic review was conducted to investigate how smokers and non-smokers identify cigarettes as being attractive or unattractive, and the resulting perceptions of cigarette appeal, perceived harm, and impact on quit intentions.

Methods:
Eligible articles were identified using database searches conducted with a date range of January 1990 to May 2017 in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Articles were included if they evaluated participant (any smoking status) perceptions of visual cigarette stick attributes. We identified studies describing visual attributes of cigarette sticks and the resulting perceptions of participants. Changes or differences in quitting intentions, cigarette appeal, perceptions of taste, and cigarette harm, and the likelihood of smoking uptake were recorded. Data were grouped into two main categories: those of physical cigarette design, and those including health messages on cigarette sticks.

Results:
Of the 950 identified non-duplicated records, 9 matched the eligibility criteria. These studies were all conducted in developed countries, and largely enrolled adolescent and young adult smokers and non-smokers. Slim, lighter coloured and branded cigarettes were favoured over longer, broader, or darker coloured cigarettes, and those without any branding or embellishments. Health warnings including ‘Minutes of life lost’, ‘Smoking kills’, and the names of carcinogenic constituents in cigarettes, reduced cigarette attractiveness and increased participant quit intentions.

Conclusions:
Cigarette appeal and resulting smoking behaviours can be influenced by several visual attributes of individual cigarettes. Unappealing visual attributes of cigarette sticks, including modifications to the size and colour of cigarettes, and the inclusion of health warnings on cigarette sticks may serve as an effective tobacco control method, potentially leading to a reduction in tobacco use.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Aaron Drovandi   
College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, 1 James Cook Drive, 4814, Townsville, QLD, Australia
 
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