RESEARCH PAPER
A longitudinal study of the relationship between receptivity to e-cigarette advertisements and e-cigarette use among baseline non-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, United States
Israel T. Agaku 1  
,  
Kevin Davis 2
,  
Deesha Patel 1
,  
Paul Shafer 2
,  
Shanna Cox 1
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
2
RTI International, Atlanta, GA, USA
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Israel T. Agaku   

Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Mailstop F-79, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Publish date: 2017-11-06
 
Tob. Induc. Dis. 2017;15(November):42
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Background:
We investigated the relationship between receptivity to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements at baseline and e-cigarette use at follow-up among adult baseline non-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

Methods:
A nationally representative online panel was used to survey non-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes (n = 2191) at baseline and 5-month follow-up. At baseline, respondents were shown an e-cigarette advertisement and asked if they were aware of it (exposure). Among those exposed, receptivity was self-rated for each ad using a validated scale of 1 to 5 for agreement with each of six items: “worth remembering,” “grabbed my attention,” “powerful,” “informative,” “meaningful,” and “convincing.” Logistic regression was used to measure the relationship between receptivity at baseline and e-cigarette use at follow-up.

Results:
Among baseline non-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, 16.6% reported exposure to e-cigarette advertisements at baseline; overall mean receptivity score was 2.77. Among baseline non-users who reported exposure to e-cigarette advertisements, incidence of e-cigarette use at follow-up was 2.7%; among baseline non-users who reported not being exposed to e-cigarette advertisements, incidence of e-cigarette use at follow-up was 1.3%. The attributable risk percentage for e-cigarette initiation from e-cigarette advertisement exposure was 59.3%; the population attributable risk percentage from e-cigarette advertisement exposure was 22.6%. Receptivity at baseline was associated with e-cigarette use at follow-up (aOR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.04–2.37).

Conclusions:
Receptivity to e-cigarette advertisements at baseline was associated with greater odds of e-cigarette use at follow-up among baseline non-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Understanding the role of advertising in e-cigarette initiation could help inform public health policy.

 
REFERENCES (19)
1.
Kim AE, Arnold KY, Makarenko O. E-cigarette advertising expenditures in the U.S., 2011-2012. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46:409–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amep....
 
2.
Truth Initiative. Vaporized: majority of youth exposed to e-cigarette advertising. Washington, DC: Truth Initiative; 2015. http://truthinitiative.org/res....
 
3.
Herzog B, Gerberi J, Scott A. Tobacco—Nielsen c-store data—e-cig $ sales decline moderates. Wells Fargo Securities: Charlotte, NC; 2014. http://www.c-storecanada.com/a....
 
4.
Herzog B, Gerberi J, Scott A. Tobacco talk: vapors/tanks driving next wave of e-vapor growth. Wells Fargo Securities: Charlotte, NC; 2014. http://www.vaporworldexpo.com/....
 
5.
Richardson A, Ganz O, Vallone D. Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising. Tob Control. 2015;24:341–7. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobacc....
 
6.
Pepper JK, Emery SL, Ribisl KM, et al. Effects of advertisements on smokers' interest in trying e-cigarettes: the roles of product comparison and visual cues. Tob Control. 2014;23(Suppl 3):iii31–6. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobacc....
 
7.
Rutten LJ, Blake KD, Agunwamba AA, et al. Use of e-cigarettes among current smokers: associations among reasons for use, quit intentions, and current tobacco use. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015;17:1228–34. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nt....
 
8.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Tobacco smoking cessation in adults and pregnant women: behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions. 2015. http://www.uspreventiveservice... (Accessed 1 Mar 2016).
 
9.
Smith DM, Bansal-Travers M, O'Connor RJ, et al. Associations between perceptions of e-cigarette advertising and interest in product trial amongst US adult smokers and non-smokers: results from an internet-based pilot survey. Tob Induc Dis. 2015;13:14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12971....
 
10.
Farrelly MC, Duke JC, Crankshaw EC, et al. A randomized trial of the effect of e-cigarette TV advertisements on intentions to use e-cigarettes. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49:686–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amep....
 
11.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health 2014.
 
12.
WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Electronic nicotine delivery systems, including electronic cigarettes.
 
13.
Davis KC, Nonnemaker JM, Farrelly MC, et al. Exploring differences in smokers' perceptions of the effectiveness of cessation media messages. Tob Control. 2011;20:26–33. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.200....
 
14.
Neff LJ, Patel D, Davis KC, et al. Evaluation of the national Tips From Former Smokers campaign: the 2014 longitudinal cohort. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016;13:150556. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.....
 
15.
Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission cigarette report for 2013. 2016. https://www.ftc.gov/system/fil... (Accessed 1 May 2016).
 
16.
Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission smokeless tobacco report for 2013. 2016. https://www.ftc.gov/system/fil... (accessed 1 May 2016).
 
17.
Federal Register. Deeming tobacco products to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; restrictions on the sale and distribution of tobacco products and required warning statements for tobacco products. Fed Regist 2016. https://www.federalregister.go... (Accessed 27 May 2016).
 
18.
Seidenberg AB, Caughey RW, Rees VW, et al. Storefront cigarette advertising differs by community demographic profile. Am J Health Promot. 2010;24:e26–31. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.0....
 
19.
Kwate NO, Lee TH. Ghettoizing outdoor advertising: disadvantage and ad panel density in black neighborhoods. J Urban Health. 2007;84:21–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524....
 
 
CITATIONS (2):
1.
Media/Marketing Influences on Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse
Kristina M. Jackson, Tim Janssen, Joy Gabrielli
Current Addiction Reports
 
2.
Reported exposure to E-cigarette advertising and promotion in different regulatory environments: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country (ITC-4C) Survey
E. Wadsworth, A. McNeill, L. Li, D. Hammond, J.F. Thrasher, H.-H. Yong, K.M. Cummings, G.T. Fong, S.C. Hitchman
Preventive Medicine
 
eISSN:1617-9625